Connect with us

PC / Laptop

The 2018: PC processors

Advertisement
Click this link to get $200 discount on iPad. Includes free shipping. Restrictions may apply.

If we talk about processors, then 2018 will be remembered first and foremost not because of some new and impressive products, but for the opposite reason. Of course, we cannot deny that AMD and Intel doing a good job of that last year left at least boring, but the thing that dominated the CPU market for the entire year is a never – ending problem. Various difficulties arose here and there, they raised both the manufacturer of the CPU, and left a significant imprint on everything that happened. Moreover, many of these problems was not resolved last year and in varying degrees, be relevant in 2019.

#Security issues

The main trouble with which the CPU market had to face in 2018, of course, became the vulnerability of families Spectre and Meltdown. And if it’s not a disaster, it is very deep and difficult problem, because attacks with their use exploit basic principles of modern micro-processors, which are widely used to increase performance: branch predictions, and speculative (anticipatory) execution of commands. Very indicative of the fact that since about the Spectre, and Meltdown was notified manufacturers of processors, until the beginning of 2018, when the information about these vulnerabilities was posted in public access, passed for six months. However, there is no clear response during this time was not followed and, moreover, certain types of attacks through third-party channel using the principles of Spectre and Meltdown remains possible to this day!

In varying degrees, were prone to Meltdown and the Spectre of the topical products not only Intel and AMD, and ARM, and even Power. However, more than any other from among the manufacturers of x86 processors have suffered all the same Intel. Microarchitecture Core was open for a solid number of varieties of attacks, which completely neutralize one only microcode fixes and patches the operating system has failed to this day. Intel have to make changes in the design of their chips at the hardware level, but it takes time, and the first CPU microprocessor giant, where the vulnerability will be eliminated in the best case will be a 10-nm Ice Lake, which is expected to be available by the end of 2019.

In the meantime users have to be satisfied with the OS patches and service packs installed firmware, installing of which, however, is not without a trace. The speed of those processors, in some scenarios, when you enable protection against Spectre and Meltdown drops by up to 30% and significantly reduces the performance of operations of input-output, in particular for calls to the disk subsystem. And this has to be tolerated, because even the processors of the Whiskey Lake and the Coffee Lake Refresh, where the developer already made some changes that make it difficult to attack, installing required patches, still leads to performance degradation.

Against this background, AMD was in a more advantageous situation: attack Meltdown for them not scary at all, and the practical operation of the Spectre requires much more effort. Therefore, we can say that AMD got off lightly: although close the vulnerability patches and service packs installed firmware is also needed, in case Ryzen this does not lead to obvious deterioration of consumer qualities of the processors.

Later, however, security systems with AMD processors, there were several other specific claims that have been announced under the name MasterKey, Chimera, Ryzenfall and Fallout. However, these vulnerabilities belonged to the security coprocessor and the chipset, that is does not directly affect the architecture of the CPU. And in addition, their operation required elevated privileges. In other words, vulnerability was secondary, and AMD also promised to eliminate them quickly via a BIOS update, so in the end, and then for the company all came together extremely well.

#Problems process

Intel, meanwhile, managed to fall into another loud scandal – the company suffered a fiasco with the introduction of 10-nm process technology. Initially, a 10-nm process technology was announced by microprocessor giant in 2017, with mass production of semiconductor devices with its use was to begin in the second half of 2017. However, in reality this did not happen. By the beginning of last year, Intel launched only a pilot delivery of limited volumes of 10-nm chips Cannon Lake only one client, and these processors were obviously a test product with limited capabilities: they had only a few cores and have been deprived of whatever graphics core.

Further development of this story was even more sad. In April, Intel reported that supplies of 10-nm chips continue to wear the trial the nature and the mass production of 10-nm products will be postponed until 2019. And still later, in the summer, it was announced that further delay the introduction of advanced technology, this time to the end of 2019. At this point, was beginning to seem like Intel is ready to completely cancel its 10-nm process, which the company has encountered numerous difficulties. And the biggest of them was the fact that Intel has traditionally been tied to the development of process technology new microarchitecture, so the delay in the implementation of the 10-nm technology automatically led to impossibility of implementation of any innovation in processor design. For this reason, all processors, which Intel brought to market in 2018, not only made for 14-nm process, but relied on the old microarchitecture Skylake, developed in 2015.

However, at the end of last year, Intel still has confirmed that recalcitrant 10-nm technology will still be implemented for mass production of chips and processors first mass produced with the application, will become chips of Ice Lake, built on a new microarchitecture Sunny Cove. Intel has promised that by the end of this year the market will be ready-made systems based on them, and explained why it could not cope with the “thin” standards.

It turns out that the problem was that the microprocessor giant has set himself too ambitious in terms of scaling the size of transistors. The transition from 14 – to 10-nm technology, as originally envisaged in the project was to increase the density of semiconductor crystals was 2.7 times and less aggressive goals, the company informed in front of him never put. For example, 14-nm process technology has increased the density of the crystal is only 2.5 times, and before that the typical ratio was a value of 2.1 and 2.3. However, the priorities originally set Intel still leaves in place. In other words, the two-year delay in the commissioning of the 10-nm technology still gave the company the necessary time to debug the equipment, and semiconductor crystals for future processors Ice Lake will be exactly the targets that I initially thought.

With the problems concerning the technological processes, in 2018 he faced, and AMD, although they were quite different in nature. The fact that long-standing manufacturing partner AMD, GlobalFoundries, suddenly changed the strategy and changed their plans. In August, the semiconductor forge announced a complete waiver of the development and implementation of 7-nm process and the desire to focus on the production of chips solely on the technical processes with the standards 12 and 14 nm and the improvement of its technology FDX (FD-SOI). Along with that GlobalFoundries has suspended all of its work on the implementation of EUV-lithography and even began to seek buyers for already acquired the lithographic equipment. This solution is one of the leading contract manufacturers of semiconductors was due to purely economic reasons: GlobalFoundries felt that received the required long-term pool of customers on old technical processes and the introduction of new technology sucking out her finances and does not promise profit in either the short or in the medium term.

Therefore, although AMD has traditionally used the power of this contract manufacturer to place orders for the release of all its CPUs, and now was forced to build relationships with new contractors. AMD plans included the transfer of all advanced products for 7-nm process technology for 2019, so looking for a new partner had very quickly. And it was the company TSMC, which will now be responsible not only for the GPU release, but also for the production of future processors Ryzen and EPYC, built on microarchitecture Zen 2. This change raises some concerns whether the new contractor to provide the proper amount of supplies. And the unequivocal answer to this question yet. But by the end of 2018 download 7-nm TSMC production lines for the first half amounted to only 80-90 %. Therefore, it is hoped that a short supply of promising chips with the architecture Zen 2 still will not occur.

#Of problems with backorders

Story short supply in 2018 is very painful for Intel. Despite the fact that ahead of the microprocessor giant has finally led to successful resolution of the situation with the introduction of another semiconductor technology, the whole story still “came out sideways”, so much so that Intel now it is time to worry about loss of market share. The fact that, starting to convert production lines for the production of advanced 10-nanometer chips, Intel was forced to restrict the output of 14-nm products, and as a result, by the middle of 2018 faced with the fact that it fails to fully meet the demand on the processors current model range.

Provoked such situation events in the server market, which demonstrated an unexpected rapid growth and was in need of a larger number of chips for data centers, but it is reflected primarily in consumer decisions. Still, the interests of major customers Intel puts above all. So when we are talking about the fact that the company is unable to produce the required number of processors, the decision was made primarily to limit the supply of low-cost solutions for laptops and desktops. As a result, in the middle of the year began a significant underdelivery of massive models the CPU, which resulted in shortages and rising prices, eventually affecting the entire range of Intel’s consumer platforms.

At the peak of the deficit, which peaked in September-October, prices on popular desktop processors like the Core i5-and Core i3 8400-8100 has risen by 30-40 percent, and never returned to normal even today. However, nothing surprising in this. Although Intel and directs a huge effort to expand production of processors for 14-nm process and even invest in the expansion of aging the production of an additional billion dollars, install and configure equipment, as well as the start of the production process – it is not one month. Therefore, even the most optimistic projections the shortage of Intel processors we will have to live until at least the end of the first quarter of this year, and many analysts suggest that the repercussions of the production problems will be felt throughout the first half.

Изменение цены Core i5-8400 на Amazon.com

Change the Core i5-8400 in Amazon.com

All this gave a great chance for AMD to increase market share in consumer processors, which is what she may fail to take advantage. While Intel offers took new price levels, AMD has consistently met the demand, we do not supply and kept prices at a constant level. This led to the fact that Ryzen become much more favourable purchase terms of the combination of price and consumer qualities, and it was appreciated by the buyers. As a result, in the last months of last year, retail sales of AMD processors in some regions (e.g. Germany and Russia) managed in unit sales to exceed the sales of Intel processors, which eventually led to some reduction in the market share of Intel in the segment of desktop systems with 88% in the second quarter to 85-87 % in the third-fourth quarter (exact estimates Mercury Research will appear a little later).

#Problems with the heads

Amid such serious security issues, new technological process and backorders processors a real trifle may seem to be another significant incident with Intel: in 2018, the company lost its Executive Director. Brian Krzanich (Brian Krzanich), who has worked at Intel for 36 years, started his career with the post of mechanical engineer and has come down in 2013 to directorship was in the middle of 2018 sacked and expelled from the membership of the Board of Directors due to the violation of internal rules regarding fraternization between employees.

There is a theory that under this pretext, Intel got rid of the Manager who committed a series of strategic miscalculations, for example, with the development of 10-nm process technology, but whatever it was, from June and to this day, the chief Executive officer of Intel remains vacant. Temporary management of the company assigned to financial officer Robert Swan (Robert Swann), and how many will continue the search for a permanent person to the vacant position, is completely unclear.

By the way, personnel problems are not bypassed in 2018 and AMD. Last year she lost many specialists from the field of marketing, and engineers. The majority of employees who left the company after Coduri Raja (Raja Koduri) has weakened the graphic direction of the company. But among them was valuable processor engineer – Jim Anderson (Jim Anderson), who headed the Department of computing and graphics solutions and led the improvement of the microarchitecture Zen after leaving AMD, Jim Keller (Jim Keller).

How this loss will affect future activities of AMD, time will tell.

#An overview of the main announcements

Problems, and how they had to fight the producers for a very interesting story. However, to circumvent the final article is a story about the new products that appeared on the market, it would be unfair. While it is true breakthrough technology, we showed neither Intel nor AMD. All appeared in last year new items were, by and large, secondary. Companies are preparing for a fundamental breakthrough in the next year and in 2018, they produced chips that are built on older technologies and architectures.

For this reason, the most innovative product in 2018, was submitted 12 months ago processor the most productive on the market of integrated graphics, which is the result of cooperation between Intel and AMD – Core graphics Radeon RX Vega. This Quad-core mobile processor crystal Kaby Lake merged with a graphics core Polaris and HBM2-memory, which were assembled on the CPU Board with the use of implanted in a semiconductor substrate of a bridge EMIB (Embedded Multi-Die Interconnect Bridge). As a result, the output will get processors with a TDP of 65 to 100 watts, which could offer very good graphics performance without having to install an additional discrete graphics card. These processors were adopted by HP and Dell, which came to put them in some of their gaming notebooks, and Intel, who offered the compact NUC system. But now, after a year, it becomes clear that it was rather a bold experiment, and not a mass product with a great future. Further development of the project, unfortunately, has not received, and computers, which can be detected with Core graphics Radeon RX Vega are gradually moving away from sale.

But a month later, in February, AMD already without the help of Intel has announced its own desktop processors with integrated graphics, which have taken a worthy place in the lineup of the company. Combining in a single semiconductor crystal core computing Zen and Vega graphics core, AMD has released a couple of chips for desktop – Ryzen Ryzen 5 2400G, and 3 2200G, immediately became bestsellers among the audience of buyers focused on the Assembly budget systems. The success of such processors was due to the fact that they were able to offer acceptable gaming performance in 720p resolution and four processing cores at a price in the range of $100-$170. However, to consider Ryzen Ryzen 5 2400G, and 3 2200G novelty of 2018 is still not quite correct. A similar Raven Ridge chips for mobile computers AMD announced back in the fall of 2017, so in this case it is logical to talk about the expansion of their habitat, and not about presenting a fundamentally new product.

But do something interesting, AMD could be releasing in April: this month saw the light of older processors Ryzen bimillenary series: Ryzen 2700X 7, 7 2700 Ryzen, Ryzen Ryzen 2600X 5 and 5 2600. And it is really legitimate to classify the second generation Ryzen, since they switched to the newer microarchitecture Zen+ and were produced by a more perfect process technology with the norms of 12 nm. However, for many of these chips was a disappointment. AMD did not perform any “mistakes”, did not improve the memory controller and did not reduce the latency of inter-core connections. All that could offer new Ryzen is only a 3% improvement in IPC (the number of executable per clock instructions), reached by the reduction of delays in the subsystem cache memory, and a slight increase in clock frequencies. In the end, the benefits Ryzen second-generation over predecessors lie within 10% performance increase, which at first glance was not enough to change the landscape of the processor market. But in fairness it should be noted that, despite the rather restrained progress in the technical specifications, the new processors Ryzen were still able to obtain considerable popularity. Fueled it as favorable price that AMD has set for their new and emerging shortage of competing offers Intel successfully for Ryzen second generation from the end of summer began to rise in price.

Were held in April and another announcement: I added a lineup of desktop processors and Intel. To the already existing overclocking six-core processors, Coffee Lake, the company added 35 – and 65-watt new the acceleration, which turned out to be six-core Core i7 and Core i5, Quad-core Core i3 and dual core Pentium. And I must say that some of these processors managed to attract considerable attention, at least until until all their appeal did not spoil the shortage and increased prices. Users willingly chose for their systems Junior Junior six-core and Quad-Core Core i5-8400 and Core i3-8100, which at some time could even become the best choice for not too expensive gaming systems. In addition, Intel has updated and sets of system logic, suggesting that for these processors cheap chipsets with innate support for USB 3.1 Gen2 and CNVi interface, providing a simple implementation of a WiFi controller on the motherboard.

At the same time with desktop processors, the microprocessor giant has introduced a large group of chips Coffee Lake for mobile systems, made shestiyaderny available including and laptops. Other models were also options vPro, productive integrated graphics Iris Plus, for the first time a mobile processor, class Core i9. However, in this case it is about eight computing cores is not. The first bearer of a new brand in the mobile segment has become the Core i9-8950HK – 45-watt six-core mobile processor with high clock speeds and an unlocked multiplier.

First, in 2018, the strengthening of the lineup of desktop processors Intel occurred in June, when the company introduced the Core i7-8086K – anniversary chip, the output of which is formally dedicated to the 40th anniversary of the Intel 8086, the first incarnations of the x86 architecture in silicon. However, despite all expectations, Core i7-8086K was not so interesting on the background already available on the market flagship six-core Core i7-8700K. The anniversary processor was only able to boast the achievement of a frequency of 5.0 GHz in turbo mode, but have not received any additional cores or improved internal thermal interface.

But this does not mean that the summer has not been any really noteworthy announcements. Just assumed they are not from Intel, and from AMD, which in August introduced the second generation Ryzen Threadripper. After the usual Ryzen they moved on microarchitecture Zen+, but more importantly, AMD decided to increase in your family HEDT offers the maximum number of cores from 16 to 32. Thanks to this AMD was able to seize the leadership of Intel in the maximum number of cores processors HEDT systems. And this time this advantage was completely overwhelming, and wait for the Intel processors of this class with a comparable number of cores now I don’t have to.

However, seniors Ryzen Threadripper second generation with 24 and 32 cores were very unique processors. Due to the fact that they are built on four crystals Zeppelin, the access to the RAM of which have only two crystals, these processors turned out to be strong only in the render tasks that do not require large amounts of information. In addition, such heterogeneous structure of the processor was not ready and the Windows operating system, the dispatcher which distributes threads across the cores Ryzen Threadripper not the most optimal way. As a result, being very interesting and attractive product on paper, senior Ryzen Threadripper turned out to be niche products with a very narrow sphere of applicability. What can be said about the 16-core Ryzen Threadripper 2950X – this product is really liked many professionals who appreciated offer them the best combination of cores and cost.

Similarly, offering a great combination of price and performance, AMD has made in the segment of budget solutions, budget releasing Socket AM4-APU processor Athlon 200GE. Presenting a somewhat abridged version of Raven Ridge, Athlon 200GE could boast of two cores Zen with the multithreading support in the graphics subsystem Radeon Vega 3, attractive price of $55. Opened later the same overclocking Athlon 200GE made a very interesting choice for budget builds.

At the end of summer came the announcement and new mobile processors from Intel, Whiskey Lake and Amber Lake U-Y. However, despite the use for naming their new code names, in this case we are talking only about the new Quad-core and dual-core versions of the mobile Kaby Lake with the target heat dissipation of 15 watts and 5 to 7 watts.

Real big announcements Intel we waited until October, when the market came processors Coffee Lake Refresh. Although Intel once again is not suggested for micro-improvements, continuing to exploit the design Skylake, the new processors got up to 8 computing cores and improved thermal interface between the chip and the heat-spreading lid, based on Bashlykova solder. Most surprising in this announcement, of course, was the fact that Intel doubled the number of computational cores in their senior mass offerings for literally two years.

Together with the OCTA core and shestnadcatiletnim processor Core i9-9900K was also presented and the Intel Core i7-9700K and Core i5-9600K, who redefined the basic characteristics of the representatives of the processor Intel average. As a result, Core i7 –now eight-core processors without Hyper-Threading, while Core i5 – shestiyaderny without Hyper-Threading. And this means that the technology of Hyper-threading from Intel are now gone from the main mass consumer proposals, remaining only in the flagship product for the ecosystem LGA 1151v2 and class HEDT processors.

Incidentally, simultaneously with the submission of the Coffee Lake Refresh Intel has updated and processors for high-performance workstations. But the new Skylake-X, in contrast to Coffee Lake Refresh of the increasing number of compute cores has been proposed, and senior LGA 2066-Intel Core i9-9980XE remained 18-nuclear. But according to the solder instead of thermal paste under the heat-spreading lid, the younger members of the family grew the capacity of the cache memory of the third level, and additionally, Intel no longer limit the number of lines available PCI Express processor value below $1000. In addition, by the amount of approximately from 5 to 15 % increased and the clock frequency.

At the same time held another preview: microprocessor giant has prepared aimed at workstations Xeon processor status W-3175X with 28 cores. Nominal characteristics of such a monster promise clock speed at 3.1 GHz, the peak frequency in turbo mode to 4.3 GHz and beyond reasonable dissipation typical 255 watts. Of course, in the framework of existing platforms, the performance of this processor is provided, it could not be, for he was offered a special socket LGA 3647, the appearance of which means the need for new motherboards. Currently, it is known that supported the initiative of Intel ASUS and Gigabyte, but as of today no circuit boards or processors Xeon W-3175X on sale. So we can’t even guess how many will have to pay for the possession of such a miracle of engineering.

#Conclusion: what to expect now

Apparently, no breakthroughs and high-profile announcements in the first half of this year on the processor market is expected. And AMD and Intel are already described in sufficient detail its plans and according to available data, processors with new designs start coming out closer to fall, when will start a new round of competition.

In the first half of the year can only be expected the advent of the AMD Picasso desktop – improved variants Ryzen with integrated graphics, transferred to 12-nm process technology. However, judging by what the data processor design has been presented for the mobile market, much innovation should not wait. It will be exactly the same Ryzen Quad-core graphics Vega, which is available now, just with increased clock frequencies.

Real innovation from AMD will have to wait until the third quarter, when the company plans to introduce its processors Ryzen third generation, built on microarchitecture Zen 2 and produced by a totally new CPU for 7-nm process. They can wait for a really large-scale improvements. Future microarchitecture involves the increase in IPC due to the optimizations of design and, most importantly, the extension to 256-bit block floating-point operations. The new technological process will allow to increase clock frequency. And besides, Ryzen third-generation AMD is going to resort to a modular design, in which the processor will be composed of several semiconductor crystals – chipsetov, which gives the manufacturer the possibility of a relatively simple to increase the number of cores. Therefore, it is possible that the efforts of AMD in 2019 we will be able to witness another breakthrough in the further development of multithreading when the mass processors for desktop systems will be able to offer consumers more than eight cores.

Answer whether it is a symmetrical step, Intel is not yet clear. But it is known that microprocessor giant is working on a seriously advanced microarchitecture Sunny Cove, which would become the basis of a mass processor company by the end of this year. Processors Ice Lake, which will be used for Sunny Cove, are expected to be produced at 10-nanometer process technology, which will allow you to place in the processor chip increased the number of cores. But while Intel focuses on micro-improvements, which should give an increase in IPC of up to 20 %. The promised extension of the cache memory and increasing the capacity of all the Executive pipeline, which should provide an impetus to accelerate the work of individual cores. If Intel adds desktop Ice Lake more cores, the result can be very interesting.

In other words, to be bored in 2019, we clearly don’t have. The competition between AMD and Intel will only be exacerbated, and both companies will probably continue to take a somewhat different approaches. While AMD is betting on the number of cores, Intel is struggling to increase the specific performance of individual cores. Some of the ways to increase productivity will be a more advantageous strategy for the desktop market, we will see in the relatively near future.

⇣ Content

If You notice a mistake — select it with mouse and press CTRL+ENTER.
Materials

SOURCE

Advertisement
Liquid Web Black Friday/ Cyber Week Managed Dedicated Server Special. Save 50% for 3 Months on upgraded Dedicated Server products! Starting at $149/mo!
Continue Reading
Click to comment

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

PC / Laptop

Review ASUS ROG MAXIMUS GENE XI: Micro-ATX hard boiled

Advertisement
GeekBuying — это профессиональный и надежный онлайн магазин основанный в 2012 году, который специализируется на продаже электроники: ТВ-приставок, смартфонов, планшетов, видеорегистраторов и других гаджетов (более 10000 товаров в 14 основных категориях).  Команда GeekBuying сосредоточена на потребно

Our website is one of the few online resources in the Russian segment, which still pays attention to motherboards and has been tested on latest devices all present on our market for the producers. However, by going to the “motherboard” 3DNews, we will see that the last review of the motherboard form factor mATX, which you can use to build a really powerful gaming PC, came out in early 2017. Such payment to and acceleration was all right, and with reliability and functionality. Basically, if we are talking about reviews, in the test lab hosted ATX and mini-ITX solutions are the current trend. Meanwhile, there are Micro-ATX case, which is quite suitable for the solution of the given task — they are well-organized cooling and they are able to accommodate powerful hardware. Thing is, it turns out, for small: need payment — and one of the few options left will be ASUS ROG MAXIMUS GENE XI. About all the pros and cons of the device read in this review.

ASUS ROG MAXIMUS XI GENE

ASUS ROG MAXIMUS GENE XI

#Specifications and packaging

The people series motherboards MAXIMUS GENE long dubbed the “Genicam”. Main features of the 11th version of “Eugene”, supporting processors, Coffee Lake (Refresh) that are listed in the table below.

ASUS ROG MAXIMUS GENE XI
Supported processors Intel 9-th and 8-th generations (Core, Pentium and Celeron Gold) for LGA1151 platform-v2
Chipset Intel Z390 Express
Memory subsystem 2 x DIMM slots, up to 64 GB of DDR4-2133-4700 (OC)
Expansion slots 1 × PCI Express x16
1 × PCI Express x4
The storage interface 2 × M. 2 (Socket 3, 2242/2260/2280) with support for PCI Express x4
1 × DIMM.2 PCI Express x8
4 × SATA 6GB/s
RAID 0, 1, 10
LAN Intel I219V, 10/100/1000 Mbps
Wireless network Intel Wireless-AC 9560
Audio ROG SupremeFX (S1220A) 7.1 HD
Interfaces on the rear panel 1 × PS/2
1 × HDMI
1 × RJ-45
1 × optical S/PDIF
3 × USB 3.1 Gen2 Type A
1 × USB 3.1 Gen2 Type C
6 × USB 3.1 Gen1 Type A
2 × USB 2.0 Type A
5 × 3.5 mm audio
Form factor mATX
Price 23 000 rubles

The device is Packed in a small but colorful cardboard box. In addition to the cost, it was a lot of accessories, both useful and not:

  • user guide, all kinds of stickers, cardboard stand for the mug, as well as optical media with software and drivers;
  • external antenna for wireless communication module;
  • two custom SATA cable;
  • one extension cable to connect the RGB strip;
  • the additional screws to install the SSD;
  • Q-connector for easy connection of buttons of the housing;
  • ROG DIMM module.2, support the installation of two SSD.
 

#Design and capabilities

ASUS ROG MAXIMUS GENE XI established on the basis of a full form factor mATX, in which each side of the printed circuit Board has a length of 244 mm. We focus on it because the budget segment is common to encounter devices that have an even more reduced printed circuit boards approaching the size rather to the mini-ITX format.

ASUS ROG MAXIMUS XI GENE

ASUS ROG MAXIMUS GENE XI

ASUS ROG MAXIMUS XI GENE

ASUS ROG MAXIMUS GENE XI

Theoretically any Board form factor mATX allows you to unsolder the four expansion slots (compared to seven connectors from standard ATX). However, ASUS ROG MAXIMUS GENE XI includes just two ports, one of which — PEG, aka PCI Express x16 3.0. This connector is further reinforced. A makeshift metal frame called SafeSlot, according to ASUS, increases the strength of the port by 1.8 times under the load of fracture, and 1.6 times when the load on the pulling. Given the fact that “Jack” can realistically become the basis for a bench-bench, this strengthening PEG port clearly will not be superfluous, because sometimes a day has to switch the graphics card by 10 times and more.

Near to the CPU socket is a PCI Express x4 slot is four lines from the chipset, corresponding to the standard 3.0. The connector has no latch, so it can be set to anything — even video card. However, technologies like AMD CrossFire and NVIDIA SLI, consider the card does not support, so put here the graphics card makes no sense.

What PCI Express x4 wired, so to speak, the first is good. This fact, on the one hand, means that we can use in the system of a huge supercooler. So, no its Archon or Noctua NH-D15 does not overlap the main PEG port (as, however, and PCI Express x4).

Achilles ‘ heel ASUS ROG MAXIMUS GENE XI is considered close proximity of the two DIMM sockets to the CPU socket LGA1151-v2. The distance from the center of the socket until the first slot is only (!) 45 mm. This means that most tower coolers will block the DIMM ports required for installation of RAM. The Board supports the installation of ultra-fast modules of standard DDR4, which means that the system can use sets of RAM with extra large heat sinks, which moreover do not get along with supernumerary.

It is obvious that ASUS ROG MAXIMUS GENE XI “adapted” to the use of maintenance-free liquid cooling system, but here we catch the problems. So, the new “dropsy” NZXT Kraken X62, used in the stand also blocked the DIMM slots — because pipe and fittings this WITH the right. In the end had to deploy the new “Kraken” at 90 degrees, and this, dear readers, is the farm, because “water” has a lighted logo that implies a definite location (although the backlight can be disabled in the cooling device). So here you need a responsible approach to the selection of water cooling. For example, AMD A80 you have such problems will not arise.

By the way, the number of DIMM slots, I have no complaints. ASUS ROG MAXIMUS GENE XI is a device that will be used along with pricey components, therefore with very high probability the system will install the dual channel kit 32 GB. Install — and forget about the lack of RAM the next many years.

The DIMM slots are soldered so close to the CPU socket because of the attempts of engineers to ASUS to cram followed by another three connectors. Immediately behind the ports under the RAM are two M. 2 slots — they have a combined metal cap, which plays simultaneously the role of passive cooling. And behind them — DIMM connector.2 to install a special expansion card that is firmly entrenched in the top motherboards MAXIMUS series. Read more about it below.

M. 2 ports can install two SSD form factors 2242, 2260 and 2280 — each connector will only work in PCI Express 3.0 x4 (lines — chipset). They are covered with a large aluminum heatsink. He was, incidentally, can be removed only if the slot PCI Express x16 graphics card is not installed. To do this, Unscrew the two screws.

Hindsight, as you know, we are all strong. If I were the engineer at ASUS, the DIMM slots are pushed to the place under M. 2 drives, and the slots for the SSD ROG MAXIMUS GENE XI divided: one mounted above the PCI Express x4 or right of it, redoing chipsety radiator and moving the slot for the batteries; the second M. 2 would make vertical. Actually, the way it is implemented, for example, in ASUS Prime X299-Deluxe. Yes, that would be not so beautiful, but, in my opinion, more practical.

And still on the Board illuminated the entire right side and a large icon with the ROG on the plastic plug I/O panel. Also ASUS ROG MAXIMUS GENE XI is equipped with two 4-pin connectors for connecting led strips and other RGB peripherals.

In the DIMM slots.2 is a ROG branded motherboard DIMM.2. For the first time this design feature the “Republican” motherboards came from ASUS Maximus IX Apex, which was published in 2017. To the slot supplied eight lines PCI Express 3.0 from the CPU. Therefore, if we use it, the only PEG-device port automatically operates in the x8 mode.

The design of the DIMM card.2 changed again, and the new variant is passive cooling for SSD. The Board itself allows you to install two M. 2-drive up to a length of 110 mm each.

Due to this configuration, the M. 2 ports, in particular, the motherboard has only four SATA connectors 6 GB/s. But the gaming PC, a number pad would be sufficient.

ASUS ROG MAXIMUS GENE XI is equipped with seven 4-pin connectors to plug the fans. For mATX Board is a great figure! In this part of connector (five) highlighted in black — they allow you to regulate the speed of not only the “Carlson” with a shim. Therefore, there is no need to use additional device like a fan controller, or pick a case with a built-in controller for the fans. Beauty! The remaining two connectors — white, they can’t lower the speed. They can “hang”, such as fans with originally low speeds.

There are 4-pin connectors, generally successfully. For example, we use a small Tower case and a two-piece DLC. Pump and fans “dropsy” are connected to the top row of connectors. Corpus impeller, located on the rear wall, to the socket near the PCI Express x4 slot, and the front Cabinet fan — port W_PUMP located on the bottom and deployed at 90 degrees. This port will be useful to those who collect custom DLC along with ASUS ROG MAXIMUS GENE XI tank with a pump usually mounted in the lower part of the Tower housing.

Yes, all the connectors are located at the bottom of the PCB, deployed 90 degrees. This is because the video card with a three slot cooler will simply cover that area of the motherboard. Interesting ports internal I note the presence W_IN/OUT W_Flow — these connectors are monitoring the temperature of the refrigerant and the speed of the liquid flow in the cooling system. And yet the Board there is a connector Node is required to connect a compatible power supply. If you do, you will be able to control the fan speed of the PSU, as well as to follow the input and output voltages. The list of compatible hardware can be found here.

Panel I / o Board is equipped with an integrated plug. It is quite tightly Packed the various ports — in addition to the five analog audio jacks and optical S/P-DIF output, it is possible to detect the display’s HDMI output, combo PS/2 port (still needed during extreme overclocking, since the USB controller in a stressful environment can “fall off”), set of USB ports, including a new-fangled Type-C, Gigabit network, and even two buttons ClearCMOS and USB BIOS Flashback.

Wired network connection is created using the Intel I219-V and wireless — by Wireless-AC 9560, which, in addition to the standard Wi-Fi 802.11 a/b/g/n/ac with a capacity of up to 1733 Mbps, and supports Bluetooth 5.0.

Sound in ASUS ROG MAXIMUS GENE XI, as in many other ROG-boards, meets the audio codec, Supreme FX, which is based on the familiar Realtek chip ALC1220A. The manufacturer claims that he gets “exclusive version” of this chip, therefore, the name of the second letter A. In comparison with the “standard” Realtek ALC1220 the ratio of “signal to noise” from “elite,” 113 vs 108 dB. Traditionally, expensive boards in the composition of the audio included high-quality Nichicon capacitors and operational amplifier RC4580 OPA1688 and production Texas Instruments. The audio chip is shielded, and all elements of the sound system is separated from the other components of the PCB strip, which does not conduct current.

All series motherboards MAXIMUS suitable for overclocking and ROG MAXIMUS GENE XI and for extreme overclocking. Therefore, the Board has several overclocking “uluchshayzerov” that make life easier for young and not so young enthusiasts. Buttons power and reset, as well as the POST indicator signals it is easy to notice. And in the right part of the PCB there are indicators QLED that demonstrate, at what stage is the computer is booted. There are also ReTry button (instantly reboots the system) and Safe Boot (runs stand with secure settings). Add to this the switches MemOK! Pause (the PC is put on pause so the user can change parameters during execution of the benchmark) and Slow Mode (instant reset CPU multiplier to 8x, to accommodate the computer severe tests). Finally, in the bottom of the device are the contact track ProbeIt, allows using the DMM to measure the exact parameters of the main stress system. It is really unfortunate. When you use graphics cards with three slot cooler for her not to get close (or get close, but then you have to work a soldering iron). Anyway to run the probe near the rotating fan 3D accelerator — so.

 

The power of the CPU is made by two 8-pin connectors. Don’t forget that power supply with this cable set do not occur very often, and basically we are talking about powerful devices — watts on the 700 and more. However, the additional power to the processor is necessary only in extreme cases.

At the core of the Converter power supply ASUS ROG MAXIMUS GENE XI is a PWM controller ASP1405I. It may seem that the Board is equipped with 12 phases, but it is not. Each channel is responsible for the operation the CPU is equipped with two inductors and two assemblies IR3555. Two single-phase “look out” for iGPU. Looks power Converter very powerful.

During the cooling of field-effect transistors meets an array of a pair of aluminum radiators is of medium size, combined, however, copper deplorable. About how effectively the system works cooling the VRM area in the acceleration, I will tell you next.

SOURCE

Advertisement
Click this link to get the Moto Z2 Force for just $31.50/month. Unlimited and device payment activation required. Includes free shipping. Restrictions may apply.
Continue Reading

PC / Laptop

The Intel Core i5-9400F: fake Coffee Lake Refresh

Advertisement
Code: VZWDEAL. Enter this coupon code at checkout to get $100 discount on Samsung Galaxy Note 8. Includes free shipping. Restrictions may apply. Device payment purchase required.

Despite the obvious difficulties with the production of 14-nm chips in sufficient quantities, Intel continues to gradually expand the lineup of Core processors, the ninth generation, known under the code name Coffee Lake Refresh. However, given it to her with varying degrees of success. That is, formally in the lineup really added new products, but in retail they appear very reluctant, and some models presented immediately after the New year novelties have been unable to check in the stores until now.

However, based on official data, now for the platform LGA1151v2 there are already at least nine desktop models of the Core pertaining to the thousandth of the series, including processors with four, six and eight cores. Moreover, the composition of this family includes not only the obvious representatives with predictable characteristics, but also unexpected CPU that is different from all predecessors ideologically. We are talking about CPUs F-series mass desktop chips, the specifications of which is not stated integrated graphics core.

Surprising in their appearance that these deals have expanded the range of consumer Intel for the first time in the last eight years, during which the company offered for mass segment only solution with integrated graphics. But now something has changed and the microprocessor giant has been forced to revise his principles. And we even know that: failures in planning and difficulties with the commissioning process with a 10-nm standards has led to a serious lack of Intel on the market, to mitigate which the company is trying by all means. The release of processors without integrated graphics – one of the rather apparent measures aimed at achieving this goal. Thanks to it the manufacturer has been able to set a serial processor previously considered defective semiconductor workpiece with a corrupted graphics core, which even at eight Coffee Lake Refresh “biting” up to 30 % of the area is 174 mm crystal. In other words, such a measure capable of increasing the yield and significantly reduce waste.

However, if Intel is the point in the release of processors F-series is quite obvious, that Benet from the emergence of such offers consumers the issue is very controversial. The chosen manufacturer of the tactic is that trimmed at its core, the processors are implemented without any discounts, for the same price as their “full” counterparts. In order to fully understand this situation, we decided to take the tests one of the Core lineup of the ninth generation, devoid of the integrated graphics and try to find his hidden advantages.

As the object for investigation was selected as Core i5-9400F Junior six-core CPU generation Coffee Lake Refresh. This chip of particular interest: its predecessor, the Core i5-8400, at the time, was very popular thanks to very attractive ratio of price and performance. Officially announced four months ago, Core i5-9400 (no F in the name) offers a slightly higher frequency such at the same price, but selling him is practically impossible. But the Core i5-9400F represented on the shelves everywhere, and, moreover, since the deficit of this model does not apply, its real value in retail as close as possible to recommended. However, this does not Core i5-9400F a good option for “basic” configurations automatically, because now AMD in the same price category offers six-core processors Ryzen 5, which, in contrast to the Core i5 series have the support for multithreading (SMT). That is why today’s quiz promises to be especially meaningful: it must give an answer to several questions and clearly show whether the Core i5-9400F chance to repeat the success of the legendary Core i5-8400.

#Lineup Refresh Coffee Lake

To date, there have been two waves of announcements of processors that are conditionally related to the generation of Coffee Lake Refresh. Despite the fact that such a CPU is largely similar to its predecessors from the family of Coffee Lake, Intel refer them to the ninth generation of Core numbers and indices, start with the number 9. And if the Core i7 and Core i9 this distinction may be partly justified, because they first obtained an eight compute cores, the new processors series Core i5 and Core i3 got an increase in model numbers for the most part. In fact, they only offer higher clock frequency.

While no improvements on the level microarchitecture can not speak at all. And surprise, to be honest, it doesn’t matter. Intel practiced the concept of development is that the profound changes in processors attached to the improvement of production technologies. Therefore, the delay in the implementation of the 10-nm process technology lead to the fact that we once again have to deal with the Skylake microarchitecture, released in 2015. However, what is surprising for some reason Intel does not seek to change features that do not require any noticeable change. For example, the official Coffee Lake Refresh continue to rely on dual DDR4-2666 memory, while AMD has repeatedly adds to its processors support high-speed modes, reaching in the latest versions of mobile Raven Ridge already up to DDR4-3200. The only thing that made Intel, is increased up to 128 GB of memory supported in systems based on Coffee Lake Refresh.

However, despite the absence of changes in microarchitecture, Intel still manages to produce quite an interesting model, extensive methods – increasing the number of cores and clock frequency. The first wave of announcements Coffee Lake Refresh, which took place in October last year, brought three flagship overclocking of the processor, to conquer new frontiers of performance: OCTA core Core i9-9900K and Core i7-9700K, as well as six-core Core i5-9600K. With the second wave of the Christmas list for the latest processors added another six CPU easier. In the end, the full nomenclature of the Refresh Coffee Lake began to look like the following.

Cores/ threads Base frequency, GHz Turbocheetah, GHz L3 cache MB iGPU IGPU frequency, GHz Memory TDP, watts Price
Core i9‑9900K 8/16 3,6 5,0 16 UHD 630 1,2 DDR4‑2666 95 $488
Core i9‑9900KF 8/16 3,6 5,0 16 No DDR4‑2666 95 $488
Core i7‑9700K 8/8 3,6 4,9 12 UHD 630 1,2 DDR4‑2666 95 $374
Core i7‑9700KF 8/8 3,6 4,9 12 No DDR4‑2666 95 $374
Core i5‑9600K 6/6 3.7 V 4,6 9 UHD 630 1,15 DDR4‑2666 95 $262
Core i5‑9600KF 6/6 3.7 V 4,6 9 No DDR4‑2666 95 $262
Core i5‑9400 6/6 2,9 4,1 9 UHD 630 1,05 DDR4‑2666 65 $182
Core i5‑9400F 6/6 2,9 4,1 9 No DDR4‑2666 65 $182
Core i3‑9350KF 4/4 4,0 4,6 8 No DDR4‑2400 91 $173

The main part of the processors added to the released in the first place overclocking K-models later, consists of chips, deprived of the integrated graphics core. Technically Core i9-9900KF, Core i7-9700KF and Core i5-9600KF are based on exactly the same semiconductor Foundation, and have absolutely the same characteristics as the Core i9-9900K, Core i7-9700K and Core i5-9600K, differing only in the fact that they don’t offer the built-in GPU, in hardware blocks at the production stage.

But the list of innovations of the second wave can be seen and indeed a new model. First is the Core i3-9350KF is the only Coffee Lake Refresh Quad core processor with an unlocked multiplier. If you close your eyes to the lack of built-in GPU, it is possible to calculate an updated version of the Core i3-8350K, which was accelerated by adding Turbo Boost technology 2.0 and the newfound ability of automatic overclocking to 4.6 GHz.

Another more-or-less full new in the second wave it is possible to calculate Core i5-9400 and devoid of the integrated graphics Core i9 fellow-9400F. The value of these models lies in the fact that with their help, Intel has significantly lowered the cost of the Junior six-core Coffee Lake Refresh, allowing you to use the latest generation CPU in the configuration baseline. However, formal differences between Core i5-9400 from last year’s hit, Core i5-8400, not so much. Clock frequency increased by only 100 MHz, which is likely due to the desire of the microprocessor giant to leave your younger shestiyaderny within the 65-watt thermal package. As a result, the gap in the maximum frequency in turbo mode between the senior and the Junior six-core processors in the family Coffee Lake Refresh increased to 500 MHz, while in the generation of Coffee Lake it was only 300 MHz.

Judging from the specs, it seems that trump the new Core i5-9400 and Core i5-9400F on the background of the old Core i5-8400 really nothing. However, the specifications in this case do not give quite the full picture. During the announcement of the first Coffee Lake Refresh, Intel said, including about the advantages of an indirect nature. For example, for a new generation of chips was promised a change of the internal thermal interface: polymer place of thermal paste was to take a highly bestlady solder. But does this apply to the Junior six-core Core processors, the ninth generation? It turns out that not always.

#Details about Core i5-9400F

It so happened that, releasing the Coffee Lake Refresh processors, Intel raked in the pile, several different variants of semiconductor crystals with process technology 14 nm++, and not all of them are in fact new. Based on Core processors, the ninth generation may lie as semiconductor crystals, designed for them specifically, and relatively old versions of the silicon, which was used extensively including in the processors of the eighth generation ranked as family Coffee Lake.

In particular, at the moment aware of the existence of at least four stoppingof crystals that are set in a certain mass the Core of thousandth of the series:

  • P0 – the only “honest” option of the crystal, which is really unfair to make Coffee Lake Refresh. This crystal has eight cores and is used in overclocking the Intel Core i9-9900K, Core i7-9700K and Core i5-9600K in their F-variations of the Core i9-9900KF, Core i7-9700KF and Core i5-9600KF, as well as the Intel Core i5-9400;
  • U0 – six-core crystal used in processors Coffee Lake, that is, in the eighth generation Core. Now it is used to create a six-core Core i5-9400F;
  • B0 the Quad – core chip, which is used for the Intel Core i3-9350K. This version of silicon, too, came into the Quad-core processor straight out of the Coffee Lake, including the Core i3-8350K;
  • R0 – a new stepping of a crystal, in which it is assumed will be the senior Core processors, the ninth generation, starting in may. Currently, the serial CPU does not occur, and therefore no specific information about its features and causes no.

Thus, the Core i5-9400F about which we are talking in this review, is the black sheep: one of a kind processor that may be internal to the device is different from the other six-core and eight-core counterparts-generation Coffee Lake Refresh. Strictly speaking, it is not a stripped-down or time-lapse version of the Core i5-9600K or Core i5-9400, and a slightly overclocked variant of the old Core i5-8400 with disabled graphics core.

And I must say, this is manifested not only in the screenshots diagnostic utilities that show for the Core i5-9400F old stepping U0 instead of a new P0. In Core i5-9400F in fact, there is no innovation peculiar to Coffee Lake Refresh. In particular, the Assembly of these chips soldering the die to the heat-spreading lid is not applied, and the internal thermal interface is exactly the same polymer compound used in processors Coffee Lake.

Core i5-9400F и Core i5-9600K без крышки. Фото momomo_us

Core i5-9400F and Core i5-9600K without a lid. Photo momomo_us

In addition, the Core i5-9400F, unlike the rest of a new generation of Coffee Lake Refresh going on the PCB with thinner the PCB is the same as used for conventional Coffee Lake.

Слева направо: Core i5-8400, Core i5-9400F и Core i5-9600K

From left to right: Core i5-8400, Core i5-9400F and Core i5-9600K

And moreover, even the shape of the heat-spreading lid Core i5-9400F gives the relationship of the Core CPU of the eighth generation. Because purebred Coffee Lake Refresh cover has changed.

Слева направо: Core i5-8400, Core i5-9400F и Core i5-9600K

From left to right: Core i5-8400, Core i5-9400F and Core i5-9600K

In other words, there is no doubt that the Core i5-9400F – in fact, no Coffee Lake Refresh and rejection of previous-generation processors with disabled graphics core. And this applies to all wholly supplied at present, the serial Core i5-9400F that largely explains the wide availability of these processors at a time when the mass supply of Coffee Lake Refresh others continue to experience significant problems. For example, formally announced simultaneously with the Core i5-9400F its “full” counterpart with integrated graphics UHD Graphics 630, which should be based on “fair” crystal stepping P0, in retail sales is still missing.

At the same time, the microprocessor giant doesn’t exclude the possibility of transfer Core i5-9400F on the “right” stepping P0 in the medium term. But it will happen, obviously, only when all accumulated in the warehouses of Coffee Lake with a defective integrated GPU will be successfully sold out.

However, for most users this fact of forgery of silicon crystals is unlikely to have any significance. Anyway, Core i5-9400F real shestiyadernik without support Hyper-Threading, which at any load is running at 100 MHz faster than its predecessor, Core i5-8400. This means that the frequency formula Core i5-9400F corresponds to $10 more expensive Core i5-8500.

Despite the fact that Core i5-9400F claimed comparatively low base frequency of 2.9 GHz, in reality this CPU is able to work much faster thanks to technology Turbo Boost 2.0. If enabled, the Multi-Core Enhancements (that is the default mode for the vast majority of motherboards) under full load, the Core i5-9400F able to keep the frequency of 3.9 GHz accelerating under load on one core to 4.1 GHz.

  Nominal frequency The maximum frequency Turbo Boost 2.0
1 core 2 cores 3 core 4 cores 5 cores 6 cores
Core i5-8400 2.8 GHz 4.0 GHz 3.9 GHz 3.9 GHz 3.9 GHz 3.8 GHz 3.8 GHz
Core i5-8500 3.0 GHz 4,1 GHz 4.0 GHz 4.0 GHz 4.0 GHz 3.9 GHz 3.9 GHz
Core i5-9400(F) 2.9 GHz 4,1 GHz 4.0 GHz 4.0 GHz 4.0 GHz 3.9 GHz 3.9 GHz

No overclocking capabilities in this speech, of course, is not. The most capable Core i5-9400F, for the maximum allowed in the technology Turbo Boost 2.0 frequency. And on motherboards with chipsets H370, B360 or H310 do not get to use and faster than DDR4-2666 memory. More speed modes available only on motherboards with older chipsets Z370 or Z390.

SOURCE

Advertisement
Code: VZWDEAL. Enter this coupon code at checkout to get $100 discount on Samsung Galaxy Note 8. Includes free shipping. Restrictions may apply. Device payment purchase required.
Code: TVS10. Enter this code at checkout to get 10% discount on any purchase. Restrictions may apply. See website for more details.
Continue Reading

PC / Laptop

Motherboard Gigabyte Z390 Designare: when I checkered, and go

Advertisement
Code: VZWDEAL. Enter this coupon code at checkout to get $100 discount on Samsung Galaxy Note 8. Includes free shipping. Restrictions may apply. Device payment purchase required.

In the laboratory 3DNews — Board with a full set of modern interfaces for any applications and support for overclocking, standing alone in the lineup Z390 solutions IBM and managed to present during testing, a pleasant surprise. Read more in our review of Gigabyte Z390 Designare SOURCE

Advertisement
Code: X7USIRDEC. Holiday coupon! $7 OFF $65 code: X7USIRDEC
Managed SSD VPS servers 15% off lifetime discount.
Continue Reading

Deals

Advertisement
Code: VZWDEAL. Enter this coupon code at checkout to get $100 discount on Samsung Galaxy Note 8. Includes free shipping. Restrictions may apply. Device payment purchase required.
Code: BIRTHDAY. Enter this code at checkout top get 30% discount on VPS hosting. Restrictions apply.
Save $50 and receive free two-day shipping on an Astell&Kern AK380 Leather Case!

Trending