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Peripherals

Review of the Intel SSD drive Optane 905P and its comparison with Optane SSD 900P and 800P, and Samsung 970 PRO

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The question of which of the commercially available solid-state drives should be considered to be the fastest, today there is a definite answer. This answer is, without a doubt Optane Intel SSD introduced last year, the media family information, which uses at its core a fundamentally new nonvolatile memory 3D XPoint. Although the older decisions in the family Optane somewhat inferior to the flagship SSD drives on the basis of conventional NAND memory in linear speeds, they provide a completely different level of performance with very low latency, which is several times less than a traditional SSD. In this lies the magic Optane SSD: lightning fast access to the data provides a completely different experience and making the computers that use such systems of information storage, more nimble and responsive than the configuration with the conventional solid-state drives based on NAND-flash.

We have analyzed in detail the strengths Optane SSD in special review. In a nutshell, the drives of this class are more advanced compared to conventional SSD architecture, which is determined by the memory 3D XPoint. Cells of a memory built on different physical principles: the effect of the phase transition. Thanks to this 3D XPoint in its properties dramatically different from NAND: it allows a direct bitwise and not page access to stored data and before recording, does not require any preliminary preparation of the cells in erase operations. Optane SSD effectively exploit these advantages, and therefore, the revolutionary Intel drives dramatically outperform the flagship SSD with the usual architecture, at least in the speed of processing melkoplodnyj operations.

Meanwhile, even the most complex models Optane SSD belonging to the series Optane SSD 900P, not without serious flaws, which the new technology is not yet able to hack their way to the mass market. The main problem, of course, is the price: the release of 3D XPoint in terms of specific capacity is several times more expensive than NAND. As a result, while Optane SSD drives come only in selected systems of higher price range, and to output successive generations 3D XPoint with a higher density of cells that will not happen before the end of 2019, this situation obviously will not change.

However, nothing prevents Intel to slowly eliminate other problems. And the first step in this direction has already been done. In addition to Optane SSD 900P on the market appeared one series of such drives – SSD Optane 905P. Despite the fact that the index number in its name suggests only minor changes, in fact more than enough. Besides, some of them make a new product considerably more attractive and can not be classified as minor.

First, in a series Optane SSD 905P, a model with increased capacity, which has reached typical consumer drives the magnitude of 960 GB. Secondly, by optimizing the firmware, Intel engineers increased the performance on both linear and random loads. Thirdly, optimization and improved energy efficiency: drives with a new design promises to be less hot. Fourth, taking into account modern trends of the consumer market, Intel has rethought strict appearance XPoint 3D products for the enthusiast, and added them to RGB led lighting. And fifth, the company implemented the possibility of including Optane 905P SSD to your system using the M. 2 sockets and connectors U. 2 or PCIe slots.

Ignore the long list of changes it would be wrong, so we tested Optane SSD 905P, comparing it with other Optane SSD and a classic storage upper level, and are ready to share the results.

#Specifications

A story about what constitutes Optane SSD 905P will be short-lived. The release of this model, Intel added the previously formed Optane family of SSD 900P, so one side of the novelties do not expect any major architectural improvements, and with another – the lineup Optane SSD 905P breadth is no different.

But certain features have Optane SSD 905P still there, although the drive is, like its predecessor, continues to be based on the same seven-channel controller SLL3D own antalovsky development, and as the memory uses the usual two-layer 128-Gigabit chips 3D XPoint of the first generation, which are produced by Intel’s 20-nm technology. The main differences lie in the software part: Optane SSD 905P written new optimized firmware, which on the one hand differs from the viewpoint of power management, and with another – brings the controller to a higher frequency and uses advanced algorithms to service melkoplodnyj operations. This subject benefits Optane 905P SSD in performance and energy efficiency.

While the lineup’s new flagship solutions based on 3D XPoint consists of two models: 480-GB SSD 2.5-inch version 2 with u-interface and 960 GB HHHL card (half length, half height) slot PCIe x4. In sum, with the existing three models Optane SSD 900P it turns out that users are now becoming available versions of “big Optane SSD” volume 280, 480 and 960 GB in the form of a PCIe add-in cards, and a volume of 280 and 480 GB 2.5-inch format. But those modifications that carry the name Optane SSD 905P, promise a slightly better characteristics, which is explicitly reflected in the specs:

Manufacturer Intel
Series Optane SSD 905P
Model number SSDPE21D480GA SSDPED1D960GA
Form factor 2.5 inch U. 2 HHHL PCIe x4 card
Interface PCI Express 3.0 x4 NVMe 1.1
Capacity 480 GB 960 GB
Configuration
Flash memory: type, process technology, manufacturer Intel 20-nm, 128-GB 3D XPoint
Controller Intel SLL3D
Buffer: type, volume No
Performance
Max. sustained sequential read, MB/s 2600 2600
Max. sustained sequential write speed, MB/s 2200 2200
Max. speed of random read (blocks 4 KB) IOPS 575 000 575 000
Max. speed random write (blocks 4 KB) IOPS 550 000 550 000
Physical characteristics
Power consumption: inaction/read-write, W 3.3 V/12,8 6/16,4
MTBF (mean time between failures), million h 1,6
Resource record, TB 8760 17520
Dimensions: Ghvhg, mm 101 × 70 × 15 68,9 x 17.2 x 168,0
Weight, g 140 230
The warranty period 5 years

The main thing to take from this table: according to the manufacturer’s promises Optane SSD 905P faster than its earlier counterpart by about 10 percent when the write operations and 4 percent in reading. In addition, the updated models have 1-2 watts lower heat dissipation. These measures, of course, is not enough to Optane SSD 905P been able to achieve with sequential throughput of PCI Express 3.0 x4. And catch the best SSD based on NAND-memory speed of linear read and write, he can not. But the improvement is still nice, especially that no additional charges after him was not done. As before, the 480 GB drive is the new version, according to the manufacturer should cost $600, and 960-Gigabyte model priced at $1300.

No significant differences in the other characteristics. In particular, Intel did not increase the allowed resource overwriting the warranty period. The company expects that daily ten-overwrite full capacity within five years, and so it is absolutely excessive restriction for desktop users, and promise even more makes no sense.

But noticeable (including literally) innovation affected the appearance of the older version of the Optane 905P SSD 960 GB. She, unlike his predecessors, got built into the radiator RGB led backlight. But this applies only to the maximum volume of the model. Version of the drive with capacity of 480 GB in the U. 2-the performance of any spectacular design elements not received.

 

Lot of expectations was due to the fact that in the new series Optane SSD 905P a version that can be installed in the M. 2 slot. Moreover, examples of the storage capacity of 380 GB even was shown at Computex. But still selling them there, but Intel has proposed an alternative solution, as can be plugged into the M. 2 slot is “big Optane” volume 480 GB. One of the delivery options Optane SSD 905P in the U. 2-the format comes with a special cable for coupling located on the drive connector SFF-8639 directly with the M. 2 slot.

Since both U. 2 and M. 2 offer only a wrapper for the four lines of PCI Express, the direct switching does not cause surprise. But those users who are deprived of U. 2 ports and did not have available PCIe slots in the end still get access to the flagship Optane SSD large capacity. This is definitely good news for supporters of computers Mini-ITX and Micro-ATX.

#Appearance and internal structure

For testing were selected Optane 905P SSD with a capacity of 480 GB. Because of this, we were able to compare two flagship Optane SSD pertaining to the different model series. However, the performance at Optane from the SSD storage capacity is not affected. The controller used in this device class, the alternation in the memory access, as well as any intermediate buffering is not used, and all operations are maintained synchronously. However Optane 905P SSD 480 GB interesting in its execution, because it is a drive in a rare format U. 2.

Generally, a form factor 2 U. is more a server issue. The traditional 2.5-inch size U. 2 drives with a thickness of 15 mm is selected in order for such SSD was convenient to use in a typical server-side baskets. That is why the dimensions of the Optane SSD 905P not differ from the dimensions of any mechanical drive with a SAS interface. But this does not mean that Optane SSD 905P fail to put in a desktop housing: it is included in both the default location for the SATA SSD.

It is easy to solve the issue with the connection. First option: U. 2-you can connect the drive to the U. 2 port on the motherboard. However, consumer boards, such connectors are rare, so this option will not cover everyone. In this case, fit the second option: you can use the adapter that allows you to set U. 2 drive into the slot PCI Express 3.0 x4 slot on the motherboard. Such adapters are very simple in structure and abundance, for example, Aliexpress.com.

There is a third option: if you carefully comb through Aliexpress.com it is possible to find other adapters, which transform into the connector U. 2 M. 2 slot.

However, if you want to connect 2 U. drive through M. 2, it is better to buy a modification Optane 905P SSD 480 GB unit SSDPE21D480GAM3. To it includes a cable to connect U. 2 drive in the M. 2 slot on the motherboard without the aid of any intermediate links. However, in this case the drive will need external power SATA cable from your power supply will need to stick to “outgrowth” of the interface cable U. 2.

In the end U. 2 version, despite its unfamiliarity, it seems even more convenient option in the form of expansion cards for PCI Express: ways to connect 2 U. drive the system is even more.

Look at 905P Optane SSD 480 GB somewhat peculiar. 2.5 inch aluminum housing, this drive serves as a giant radiator: the top and bottom surface generously plowed deep furrows to increase surface area. However, to say that Optane SSD any noticeable hot, is absolutely impossible. Even with heavy use and without additional cooling air flow case temperature does not rise above 45 degrees.

 

Inside U. 2 version of the Optane 905P SSD 480 GB is the same stuffing, as in the drive Optane 900P SSD 480 GB, which we tested. This means that all the improvements in the newer version do have the software-only nature. From a hardware point of view nothing has changed: the proprietary Intel controller SLL3D manages a seven-channel array of the 35 memory devices 3D XPoint. This means that “raw” memory in the 480-Gigabyte version of the SSD Optane total of 560 GB, and the “extra” gigabytes used to store metadata, the implementation of RAID 5-like parity and replacement Fund. Please note: we are not talking about garbage collection, because 3D XPoint does not require any preliminary preparation for the subsequent recording, and Optane SSD this process is not incorporated.

At the same time 905P Optane SSD 480 GB Intel switched to the use of chips of larger capacity. While in the previous version of drive was installed chips with one or two crystals inside, but now the manufacturer uses including chips, which are stacked four terminal device 3D XPoint. This is what has allowed Intel to fit inside a 2.5-inch enclosures 480-plus GB memory. But larger than 480 GB version, the storage class Optane SSD while possible only in the form of HHHL-boards, which provide chips for more planting space.

 

Speaking about the internals Optane 905P SSD 480 GB, it is worth noting two more interesting details. First, abundant application in the design of the storage pads. They are equipped without exception, all of the chips: not only the controller but also the XPoint 3D chips.

Second, among the fifteen circuits, the components of the circuitry of the drive is not visible the usual chip dynamic memory. And there is nothing strange: any of Optane SSD is really complete without a DRAM buffer. The XPoint 3D architecture is fundamentally different from a NAND architecture at the logical level, and memory array composed of XPoint 3D devices with direct access, does not require complex addressing with the use of a table of address translation. In addition, the XPoint 3D memory is by orders of magnitude lower compared to NAND latency. All this allows you to opt-in to Optane SSD is an additional layer in the form of DRAM.

#Software

Intel traditionally supplies its drives quite functional SSD Toolbox, which is compatible with Intel SSD Optane 905P. In General, it is similar to other similar programs, but you need to understand that because of the peculiarities of XPoint 3D memory are many common service functions of the SSD in this case is not necessary. In particular, Optane SSD no need for special set up or transfer to the drive, the TRIM command, so some of the capabilities of the Intel SSD Toolbox in system with such storage is not available.

 

Nonetheless, the utility allows you to get detailed information about the drive status and the values of its parameters S. M. A. R. T.

 

In addition, the SSD Toolbox has the ability to diagnostic scan, during which you can check the status and operability of a memory array. The scan runs as fast and full mode – the difference is that will affect testing the entire memory array or only some part of it.

 

Also use the SSD Toolbox to check the relevance used by the drive firmware and initiate the Secure Erase operation (only on Windows 7).

 

Signature feature antalovsky service utilities – System Tuner. With it, you can see the critical settings related to the disk subsystem includes the operating system, as well as to obtain recommendations for changes.

SOURCE

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Peripherals

Overview of external storage, Samsung Portable SSD X5: champion wire

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Not that we often wrote about devices that use Thunderbolt 3. However, this does not mean that this interface is unpopular. Moreover, one could even argue that right now Thunderbolt 3 has become the de facto standard for portable computers. This interface can be found in the latest laptops from most leading manufacturers, especially if to speak about models of the upper price category. However, the problem with a clear lack in the number of devices on this interface can be connected, yet will not go away. Compatible gadgets currently produced not so much, and the bulk of such devices or boxes for connecting external graphics cards, or media, or monitors.

To enter this market and decided the South Korean company Samsung, which sensibly decided that the possibility of Thunderbolt 3 are great for connecting SSDs with NVMe interface. External storage, Samsung Portable SSD X5, which will be discussed further in this review, and as a steward of this vision to life. We recently reviewed the SSD Samsung Portable SSD T5, outdoor portable version of SATA drive 850 EVO. X5 Portable SSD is also an external portable model SSD, but it all made differently. Instead of the USB interface is a Thunderbolt 3, while the inner stuffing is not used SATA, and NVMe drive.

As a result, Samsung managed to build not just a very fast and advanced at the speed of an external SSD. Unlike other manufacturers that produce 3 Thunderbolt drives based on PCIe 3.0 x2-bridge development company Phison, Samsung did not depict the only advanced components. They include Intel’s Thunderbolt of a 3-axle Alpine Ridge and high-end SSD like the 970 EVO.

This is what allows you to say about the Samsung Portable SSD X5 as the best solution in its class. However, there is a negative side – the resulting product is not cheap. For version X5 500 GB asking for 28 990 rubles, terabyte drive, you need to pay 49 990 RUB., and the older version of X5 with a capacity of 2 TB is estimated at 99 990 rubles. under what circumstances external SSD can be not a pity to pay that kind of money, we’ll talk further.

#External performance and features

Surprisingly, Samsung does not adhere to a single style in the design of their external drives. The new X5 quite similar to the earlier T5 and T3. If before the designers gravitated to the strict form, the Portable SSD X5 has much more bold colors and frivolous faired with a cigar-shaped profile. Seems using the exterior Samsung wants to give us a scoop on a race car.

In addition, a new device with Thunderbolt 3 is bigger and heavier than its predecessors: it weighs 150 grams and has dimensions of 116 × 60 × 18 mm. In overview Samsung T5 we did not hesitate to use the epithet of “miniature”, but today will have to abstain: X5 – pocket, but it is not lightweight and not compact.

As explained by Samsung itself, the choice of dimensions and materials for the housings is based on purely utilitarian considerations. After all, the body not only solves the problem of attracting attention to the product, but also other tasks: he must reliably protect the filling and effectively remove it from the heat. It is therefore not surprising that the design is somewhat unusual material. Let the case halves look dissimilar, but the lower half of which is painted in glossy paint “wet asphalt”, and the top, which is red in color, made of the same metal.

And this is not a traditional aluminium, and lighter, yet more durable magnesium. As a result, the manufacturer promises that the body of the Samsung Portable SSD X5 can withstand a fall from a height of 2 meters. But we should not throw the drive in the water – moisture protection for him is not provided.

With the end of the device is the only plug – USB Type-C with internal Thunderbolt interface 3. Data transmission and power supply device by a single cable. Next to the USB Type-C casing is a white led, showing the activity of the drive. Supplied with the drive includes a Thunderbolt cable with a length of 45 cm, but no more accessories in the box with the X5 is not, which is somewhat unusual for a device with such value.

The interfaces used for connecting external drives, has seriously evolved in the past few years. The first external SSD, Samsung T1, connected via USB 3.0, and could offer performance on the level of several hundred megabytes per second. The next product in the series, Samsung T3, moved to USB 3.1 Gen 1 with a connector Type-C, but it has not brought much improvement in speed. But the T5 model has raised the bar higher linear speeds up to 540 MB/s. the Secret was the introduction of the next version of the interface – USB 3.1 Gen 2 with a theoretical throughput of 10 GB/s.

That the latest model of the external drive Samsung made the transition to Thunderbolt, it is not surprising. Even the first version of this interface provides the same 10 GB/s and USB 3.1 Gen 2. A modern version of the Thunderbolt 3 faster and four times its bandwidth is 40 Gbit/s, which obviously should suffice for the needs of the fastest consumer-level SSD. Samsung claims that the new X5 provides the speed sequential read and write up to 2.8 and 2.3 GB/s, respectively. That is at least five times faster portable SSD compared to T5.

But you need to keep in mind that, despite the use of the usual connector Type-C, Thunderbolt 3 is not backwards compatible with the USB. That is to connect the Samsung Portable SSD X5 and see the promised speed only on those machines that support Thunderbolt 3. In addition, this computer must be running a relatively fresh operating system: Mac OS X version 10.12 or above, Windows 10 version 1703 and above.

In General, the specifications considered portable SSD is as follows.

Samsung Portable SSD X5
Capacity 500 GB, 1 TB, 2 TB
Interface Thunderbolt 3 (40 Mbps)
Sequential read speeds Up to 2,800 MB/s
Sequential write speed 500 GB up to 2100 MB/s
1 and 2 of TB – up to 2300 MB/s
Size 119 × 62 × 19,7 mm
Weight 150 g
Encryption Hardware AES-c 256-bit key
Guarantee Three years
Price (official) 500 GB – 28 990 rubles.
1 TB – 49 990 RUB.
2 TB – 99 990 rubles.

The big advantage of the Samsung X5 is that it supports data encryption algorithm AES256 without the imposition of any penalty on performance. Encryption management is performed through the utility Samsung Portable SSD.

I must say that the proprietary tool is a very stripped-down functionality: it can only enable encryption — and nothing more. Accordingly, to see her through any diagnostic information will not work. But for these purposes it is possible to use third-party programs — for example, fit CrystalDiskInfo.

Mind you, despite the fact that we are talking about an external device, CrystalDiskInfo shows the used Protocol NVM Express 1.3. This is indirect confirmation of the use of inside X5 standard component is based on 3D TLC NAND drive Samsung 970 EVO.

However, without constraints, the case is still not complete. For example, from the testimony of CrystalDiskInfo, it follows that X5 has no TRIM support, although it would seem, Thunderbolt 3, which is an add-on PCI Express bus should be absolutely transparent. All the matter in the file system. The drive comes formatted in exFAT, and if you reformat to NTFS, then TRIM support will appear.

But it should be borne in mind that this recipe is suitable only for computers that runs exclusively under the Windows operating system. External drives formatted in NTFS, in Mac OS X is recognized only for reading.

#Internal device

To create a portable SSD drives often use the same scheme: to some of the traditional serial product adds an additional bridge to provide compatibility with an external interface.

It is done so and Samsung Portable SSD X5. The basis for this SSD supports the OEM version of the familiar NVMe drive, Samsung EVO 970 (PM981) with modified firmware. And this means that Samsung X5 applied 64-layer TLC 3D V-NAND, which is managed by the latest eight-channel controller Samsung Phoenix. In other words, inside the X5, you can detect the real M. 2 drive is installed in the slot, soldered on a common motherboard devices.

However, to combine NVMe drive with Thunderbolt 3, motherboard X5 installed another important chip – bridge Intel Alpine Ridge. Thanks to this bridge the speed of the 970 EVO that uses the interface PCI Express 3.0, not cut, and internal NVMe SSD has an access to all 40-Gigabit bandwidth Thunderbolt 3. However, the appearance on the data path, the secondary node in the form of Alpine Ridge still causes little damage to performance and formal characteristics of the Samsung X5 is a little slower than the original 970 EVO. But the damage this isn’t too big — it fits in 10-15 %.

But Samsung X5 is characterized by all the usual technologies from desktop product: first of a two-stage SLC TurboWrite cache Intellegent. The essence of this technology accelerated recording is that the SLC cache drive consists of two parts: static and dynamic. In sum, as the Samsung Portable SSD X5 is capable of high speeds, large amounts of information that an external drive is even more important than for domestic.

We tested Samsung X5 capacity of 1 terabyte, and the total capacity of SLC cache made it about 36 GB. This should be enough for average usage scenarios, but still need to keep in mind that the exhaustion of free space in the SLC cache, the write performance drops by about half: from 2.3 to 1.0 GB/s. This is illustrated in the following graph copying on SSD large file.

If you talk about how Samsung X5 are designed from the viewpoint of mechanical design, attention should be paid to the fact that it has done much to improve cooling. This is logical: the heat dissipation of high-speed NVMe SSD – quite a sensitive issue, so all the chips inside X5 which are heated during operation, through the contact pads or metal parts of the enclosure, or with a massive metal heat distribution plate installed in the X5.

This layering not only positively impact on the thermal regime, but also ensures that the body of Samsung X5 will always have a comfortable temperature and will not cause thermal burns.

However, in the process, the case Samsung X5 can be heated to 40-45 degrees. But higher temperature does not rise. This is followed by another proprietary technology – Dynamic Thermal Guard, which inhibits the frequency controller operation Phoenix cases when it warms up above 55 degrees. Naturally, this decreases performance, but as soon as the thermal regime returns to normal, it is restored to its original state.

In other words, overheating Samsung X5 should not be afraid. The drive works correctly raising the temperature, and monitor their condition.

Curiously, for some reason Samsung has limited the warranty period for Portable SSD X5 three years. On internal storage 970 EVO and gives five-year warranty. However, external portable SSD is not established borders at full load. Apparently, Samsung suggests that in real life, an external SSD could be used more intensively than internal.

SOURCE

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Peripherals

Overview SATA SSD Samsung 860 QVO: 10 thousand per terabyte

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For anybody not a secret that the overwhelming leader in the market of SSDs keeps Samsung. The South Korean company was able to build a highly effective vertically integrated business. It produces for its SSD flash memory, and also she is developing for them, controllers and platforms. And both are doing so diligently, as a result, the memory controller can boast advanced characteristics. So it is not surprising that the resultant of these components drives become leaders in their niches and are extremely popular. And NVMе mass storage device 970 EVO, and a strong middle 860 EVO, and even the flagship 970 PRO Samsung sold huge amounts of all these three products are among the bestsellers in the American market (according to Amazon), and Russia (according to “Yandex.Market”).

Therefore, the share of Samsung in the global SSD market, which last quarter recorded at the level of 38.7 %, seems quite a reasonable achievement. The surprise is quite another. Such impressive success and at least a threefold superiority in terms of supplies over any other manufacturer Samsung was able to achieve, in fact, offering nothing in the budget segment. Any of the popular South Korean SSD company is worth significantly more expensive drives entry-level, but nevertheless, consumers still prefer Samsung.

From time to time Samsung decided to experiment and produces small batches of cheap consumer goods like SSD series 650, 750 or 850 EVO. However, the supply of these drives never wore really massive, and probably should be classified as unsuccessful forays into the lower part of the market. The result to date, Samsung seems to have reached his ceiling on the consumer market: for the expansion of the expansion it requires a full expansion of the model range in the direction of inexpensive devices. Understand it in the Samsung, so the appearance of new products, about which we will speak today of an SSD 860 QVO — it was only a matter of time. Samsung needed a stable product for the budget segment, she had designed. And for him was chosen technologically new filling, allowing do to radically reduce the cost and transfer the drive to another from the point of view of the positioning level. This filling – three-dimensional flash memory with four-bit cells, QLC 3D V-NAND.

If you look at history, we can recall that initially the SSD came on the market as a professional solution for professionals and enthusiasts. And it was largely due to their price: in 2012, the unit cost of “solid state Gigabyte” was approximately us $1.1. But then there have been significant changes, which were provoked by the arrival on the market of SSDs, built with the use of a three-bit memory cells, the TLC NAND. In the period from 2012 to 2016, the price of SSDS has declined by approximately 28 % per year, falling eventually to $0.3 per Gigabyte. In the same period, manufacturers of memory could solve the main problem TLC NAND is low reliability. Here helped the transition into the third dimension and the beginning of production in 2014, layered 3D TLC NAND.

However, in 2016 the price of flash memory and SSDs have almost ceased to decline. The fact that by this time the bulk of the NAND manufacturers have already switched to the production of three-dimensional a three-bit memory, and further price movement down could be initiated only at the expense of any new technologies or approaches. The four-bit memory cells should become the new approach and, as a consequence, to catalyze the extension of the habitat of SSDs. As analysts predict, the emergence of QLC-memory cheaper SSD in the near future will resume and the price to fall by 30% per year will once again be a familiar situation.

The cost of a mechanical HDD is now at $0.03 per GB, and it is believed that opportunities for significant changes in the next few years is not expected. This means that around the end of 2021 we will come to less than three times the gap in the cost of information storage on HDD and SSD. In this way and needs to pull the market new Samsung 860 QVO, becoming not only an attractive offer for buyers with a limited budget, but a price benchmark for other SSD manufacturers. Passing the implementing a QLC 3D V-NAND solves another problem: it opens up opportunities for growth the ultimate capacities of SSDs.

In other words, Samsung 860 QVO is not only an interesting drive with an attractive price, but the revolutionary SATA SSD, laying the Foundation for further market changes. There is only one thing: the transition to the widespread use QLC-memory can adversely affect the basic characteristics — reliability and performance. Does this mean that progress pushes us towards less quality products? Let’s see how QLC drive Samsung 860 QVO looks at the background of TLC predecessors. Our lab just received for testing an instance of a novelty.

#Specifications

No matter how it seemed Samsung 860 QVO innovative and unusual, this drive is logically very similar to the 860 EVO. Of course, it uses a slightly different memory, but in General, all the principles of design remained exactly the same as in the TLC model with SATA interface. To the extent that the new SSD is based on the same eight-channel controller, Samsung MJX, support four-bit memory which is “screwed” by a software – firmware. That is, despite the fact that 860 QVO is a novelty with an innovative four-bit memory inside, no radical alteration to the usual SATA interface extension platform when this did not happen.

And this is pretty good news, especially considering that Samsung MJX controller is always in need of additional DRAM buffer. Because it means that, even though Samsung 860 QVO, and is positioned as entry-level solutions, he is not an unbuffered solution, the hallmark of which is the frustratingly low performance in melkoplodnyj operations. In other words, the purpose of the South Korean developers when creating 860 QVO total savings still has not been, and they are trying to get QLC-new better performance.

However, you need to understand that speed parameters Samsung 860 QVO in any case will be worse than the 860 EVO. The work of the four-bit flash memory is built using not eight, as in TLC-memory, and sixteen different charge levels in the cells to program properly and to recognize which obviously difficult. For this reason, working with an array QLC 3D V-NAND 860 QVO gives rise to higher delays, which ultimately result in lower productivity.

In addition, there is another circumstance. Memory, which Samsung produces for 860 QVO, is a 64 – QLC-layer 3D V-NAND the fourth generation with semiconductor crystals with a capacity of 1 terabit (128 GB). Consequently, the array of flash memory composed of such components, in any case, will have half the degree of parallelism in comparison with an array of the same capacity, but on the basis of modern 64-layer TLC 3D V-NAND, where the capacity of the crystals is 512 GB. Which is also a negative impact on performance.

However, if you refer to the official specs of the Samsung 860 QVO, no particular concern for speed parameters does not arise.

Manufacturer Samsung
Series 860 QVO
Model number MZ-76Q1T0 MZ-76Q2T0 MZ-76Q4T0
Form factor 2.5 inch
Interface SATA 6 GB/s
Capacity, GB 1000 2000 4000
Configuration
Flash memory: type, process technology, manufacturer Samsung 64-layer 1-Tbit QLC 3D V-NAND
Controller Samsung MJX
Buffer: type, volume LPDDR4, 1 GB LPDDR4, 2 GB LPDDR4 4 GB
Performance
Max. sustained sequential read, MB/s 550 550 550
Max. sustained sequential write speed, MB/s 520 520 520
Max. speed of random read (blocks 4 KB) IOPS 96000 97000 97000
Max. speed random write (blocks 4 KB) IOPS 89000 89000 89000
Physical characteristics
Power consumption: inaction/read-write, W 0,03/2,2–3,1
MTBF (mean time between failures), million h 1,5
Resource record, TB 360 720 1400
Dimensions: D × H × d, mm 100,0 × 69.85 mm × 6,8
Weight, g 47,5
Warranty period, years 3
The recommended price $150
10 990 RUB.
$300
21 990 RUB.
$600
43 990 rubles.

However, you need to understand that the declared rated speed consider technology SLC-cache, which is at 860 QVO, of course, is. Moreover, the new drive inherited from 860 EVO corporate samsonovsky algorithm Intelligent TurboWrite. Its essence lies in the fact that in addition to the standard static part of memory, working in a fast SLC mode, it dynamically allocates under SLC cache extension location from the array of main QLC flash memory (subject to the availability of the drive Unallocated user data space). As a result, the amount of information that you can write on the Samsung 860 QVO with high speed are quite sufficient for the vast majority of user scenarios.

TurboWrite Technology Intelligent 860 Samsung EVO
1 TB 2 TB 4 TB
Static SLC cache, GB 6 6 6
Part of the dynamic SLC cache, GB 36 72 72
The maximum amount of SLC-cache, GB 42 78 78

High amounts of fast cache needs to “save” Samsung 860 QVO from attempts to work with memory directly, which, as practice shows, leads to disastrous falling of speed.

For example, we built the graphs of linear recording on a Samsung EVO 860 and 860 QVO capacity of 1 terabyte. And as follows from the obtained data, the volume of the SLC cache for these drives the same, but the performance when writing directly to the memory array in TLC, or QLC-mode is fundamentally different.

While the rate of direct entry in the array of TLC 3D V-NAND from Samsung 860 EVO 1 TB is about 420 MB/s, Samsung 860 QVO 1 TB writes data to your array QLC 3D V-NAND is almost six times slower – at a rate of only about 75 MB/S. the price paid for 33 percent increase in data storage density in QLC-cells and a twofold increase in the volume of crystals is cruel.

But we must bear in mind that the Samsung 860 QVO 1 TB is the slowest option samsonovsky QLC drive was built in just eight devices QLC 3D V-NAND. Version same capacity of 2 and 4 TB on the basis of their architecture, should provide twice higher performance direct recording in four-bit mode. In addition, they have significantly large amount of the SLC buffer, and hence the probability to face a drop in performance when interacting with them much less.

Performance direct writes to the QLC-memory the Samsung 860 QVO 1 TB gives an unequivocal answer to the question why the model number begins with terabytes. To drive this capacity, the controller MJX uses to interact with flash all of its eight channels, but the writing speed is still obtained, to put it mildly, low. So if Samsung decided to release 860 QVO half the size with four-channel array of the flash memory, it would be epically slow drive. So the expansion of the model range down should not wait.

But the launch of the Samsung 860 QVO 8TB is a very real possibility, which is likely to be implemented. MJX controller supports up to 64 NAND flash devices, so to collect on its basis the storage of such capacity, Samsung engineers will be able at any time. Another thing is that it will cost more than $1,000, and today the demand for such a product is unlikely to occur.

Do not think that the QLC transition to 3D V-NAND allows multiple to reduce the cost of SSD. Increasing the bit-depth of cell from three to four is only 33-percent increase in storage density of information, so in the best case (even without considering the immutability of the cost of the rest of the hardware platform controller and DRAM) the cost of Samsung 860 QVO may be less than 860 Samsung EVO, just a quarter. It is so designed official prices for the new drives QLC 3D V-NAND is cheaper symmetrical counterparts on the basis of TLC 3D V-NAND up to 25 %.

But in fairness it should be mentioned that the official price was adjusted at the last moment before the announcement. Samsung originally offered to sell 860 QVO even cheaper, which makes clear that there is a reserve for markdowns QLC-new products in the foreseeable future.

Another sensitive issue concerns the reliability. The work of the QLC 3D V-NAND is built on a two-fold increase in the number of signal States of each cell compared to TLC 3D V-NAND, which means that these cells can be more demanding to wear out faster and stronger to be subjected to the effect of mutual influence. Obviously, all this should be reflected in the life time of the drive, so it is not surprising that Samsung has reduced the warranty on the 860 QVO to three years. In addition, this SSD is more stringent than for the 860 EVO, the scope of the permitted levels of overwriting. So, the manufacturer is ready to take responsibility for their product only if it is for a life time will be overwritten no more than 360 times.

However, it is possible that with the resource 860 QVO it’s not so bad. Applied to the drive QLC 3D V-NAND is exactly the same process that samsonovsky TLC 3D NAND fourth generation with 64 layers. As shown by our tests, copies of drives, built on such a three-bit memory, are very hardy and comparable at the time of life with other SSD manufacturers on the basis of MLC NAND. Therefore, we can assume that Samsung 860 QVO can expect at least no worse reliability than conventional TLC drives. Consequently, keep clear of a new no reason. Especially since this is not the first SSD on the basis of the QLC 3D NAND, and users built on chetyrehbalnoy memory Intel and Crucial SSD 660p P1 about any premature mass loss drives not misleading.

#Appearance and internal structure

Familiarity with the design of the Samsung 860 QVO we conducted on the example storage two versions of volume 1 and 2 TB. However, these differences are small: the only difference in design used on memory chips – they are collected using different numbers stacked inside semiconductor crystals. The rest of the drives are very similar.

External performance members of the series Samsung 860 QVO remained exactly the same as that of the 860 EVO. New SSD placed in the traditional 2.5-inch aluminum casing, the face of which the paint is applied the Samsung logo and a black square is a kind of mnemonic reference facilities of the product to the budget segment. The flip side of the case bears a sticker with the model name, capacity, part number, serial number, date of issue, key PSIM (to reset the encryption password), and other support information. In fact, in the design of a new product only changed color. Earlier Samsung used to paint my 2.5 inch SSD black paint, drives well on the basis of the QLC 3D V-NAND steel graphite grey.

Inside 860 QVO is hardly surprising, anyone who has ever looked under the lid 860 Samsung EVO or at least seen pictures of the “guts” of this SSD. The fact that the size and layout of the PCB is almost not changed: it’s still the same small piece of the PCB on which the controller huddle, two chips of flash memory and DRAM buffer.

But all the same printed circuit Board used in Samsung 860 QVO, is slightly different from circuit Board 860 EVO. In other words, the design of models on the basis of TLC and QLC-memory is not unified, although compatibility with MJX controller four-bit memory is solved only programmatically.

Samsung 860 QVO 1 Тбайт

Samsung 860 QVO 1 TB

 
Samsung 860 QVO 1 Тбайт

Samsung 860 QVO 1 TB

In addition to the dual-core controller Samsung MJX (codenamed MARU) with a frequency of 1 GHz, which is used now in all of the SATA Samsung drives, including the flagship PRO 860, 860 on the Board QVO installed the chip LPDDR4-SDRAM 1866, which need to store a copy of the table of address translation and buffering melkoplodnyj operations. The chip size of dynamic memory depends on the size of the drive is calculated as 1 GB DRAM 1 TB of flash memory.

Actually flash memory in the Samsung 860 QVO recruited one or two chips, each of which can have 8 or 16 stacked stacked 64-layer Terabithia crystals QLC 3D V-NAND in the matter about the drive what size it is. Thus, in younger, terabyte version of array of flash memory has eight-channel structure without alteration of devices, and in versions with a capacity of 860 QVO 2 and 4 TB used twice or fourfold sequence, which determines the differences between them in performance.

Samsung 860 QVO 2 Тбайт

Samsung 860 QVO 2 TB

 
Samsung 860 QVO 2 Тбайт

Samsung 860 QVO 2 TB

Speaking of, how made by Samsung 860 QVO, we should emphasize that the reduction in price, this drive is held completely different way about how this issue fits most other firms. Samsung strategy is to use new to the market four-bit memory with lower cost, but otherwise no signs of pursuit for cheapness not. It is especially important that the South Korean manufacturer did not abandon the DRAM buffer, the abolition of which would lead to serious performance degradation when melkoplodnyj operations.

No 860 QVO and no sign of “saving on matches”. Samsung has kept for its budget SSD sturdy metal housing, assembled with screws, and did not even go for a cheaper SSD retail packaging in blister packs instead of cartons. In other words, to turn on the Samsung 860 QVO looks not worse, than the 860 EVO.

#Software

Mass storage Samsung traditionally supplied software utility on the Magician that, starting with version 5.3, supports including 860 QVO. This utility decided to put an example of what should be accompanied by a consumer SSD, so to make any claim to its functionality or interface is not so easy. However, the set of features is not unexpected.

Samsung Magician 5.3 allows to obtain General information about the drive, the operation mode, firmware version and the amount of recorded data. Also you can see the state of attributes that are returned in S. M. A. R. T.

Utility allows to conduct assessment of the performance of the drive and make sure it is fully compatible with the system in which it is installed.

With the help of a Magician can be manually sent to the drive package TRIM commands, and to adjust the size of the marked up file system space, turning part of the capacity of the SSD in the additional reserve area.

Also using Magician, you manage the built-in Samsung 860 QVO features hardware-based encryption (supported in full even in this entry-level model). Plus to this, the utility allows you to create a boot “stick” for a complete wipe using Secure Erase.

We should also mention that through Samsung Magician can be activated by the corporate mode Rapid software caching requests to the drive in the computer’s memory running on the operating system level.

SOURCE

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Peripherals

The best microSD card with capacity of 128 GB: comparative test 20 models

This year, our lab decided to do tests memory cards microSD. These are based on flash memory miniature media information has become ubiquitous and is actively used not only in all sorts of gadgets to capture photos and video, but in the portable devices based on the Android operating system in smartphones and tablets. Consequently, their proper choice arose great interest that we have in process of forces and possibilities to meet.

The first article in the series was devoted to the comparison of microSD cards with capacity of 64 GB. To start with this volume we decided, based on its popularity, sales statistics says that, although the most popular goods are rather cheap memory cards 16 and 32 GB, the interest in the 64-Gigabyte cards are also considerable. But most importantly, the customers, the 64-Gigabyte cards treat them much more picky. A significant influence on the choice starts to have is not so much the price of the device, as its performance characteristics, reliability, warranty and brand reputation.

In the comments to our first material many readers requested to conduct similar tests and memory cards microSD larger volume of 128 or even 256 GB. We decided to ignore the request and move along axis of the container on. Of course, memory cards with capacity of 128 GB cannot be considered as popular choices as the 64-Gigabyte microSD cards: they are more expensive, and because they buy about half as often. However, if you look at the sales statistics for last year interest to a roomy microSD cards has increased almost four times. And that means that a 128-Gigabyte storage media for portable devices could from decisions of interest to only a especially demanding consumers, to turn into a quite popular product.

That is why the second article of the cycle affects memory cards with capacity of 128 GB. And immediately it should be clear that these cards are very different from the 64-Gigabyte, and their individual testing makes sense. Important features there are two. First, the composition of the products, available in capacity of 128 Gbytes, is different from the range 64-Gigabyte cards. Spacious microSD card is more difficult to manufacture, so offer them only to those manufacturers that have advanced technology and have the opportunity to purchase the latest types of flash memory. Second, the speed parameters of memory cards vary according to their capacity. More capacious options of microSD cards are built on more stacked cards inside the crystals NAND, which gives the opportunity to implement various techniques of alternating access, which increases the efficiency of the array of flash memory. As a result, the higher card volume are usually faster, but the relationship is not direct, because so much depends on the Manager, the flash memory controller.

#MicroSD memory cards: what you need to know

Nonetheless to reminisce about the past testing of memory cards today we will have repeatedly. After all that time we have not only identified the most attractive proposals among the 64 GB microSD card (then won Samsung EVO Plus), but also learned a lot about the current state of the market as a whole. The understanding of previously obtained results allows to approach more systematically and to better understand which features microSD are more critical and which signs you should pay the most attention.

First and foremost, we learned that almost all modern microSD card, running on the bus UHS-I read speed rests in the bandwidth of the interface. The situation here is the same as with a SATA SSD when any such drive will provide the same speed of linear reading. The only difference is that the bus UHS-I has a theoretical bandwidth of 104 Mbytes/s, this sets the maximum read speed with UHS-I microSD cards. In practice, almost any card will issue a sequential read speed of at 95-100 MB/s. Deviation is only possible for two reasons: either the device that uses the map has its own speed limit, or talking about some old or just a bad sample. For example, in the past testing the 64-Gigabyte microSD card low speed when reading was detected only in Kingston Canvas Select, from the cheapest of the cards SONY Russian-made and outdated models of Transcend cards.

Exceeding 100 MB/s speed performance for linear reading is possible only with the next version of the interface — UHS-II. Cards that use this already available for sale, but we do reserve outside the focus of attention for two reasons. First, they are quite rare and much more expensive UHS-I cards. Second, the gadgets, which support UHS-II cards are not so widely that ultimately makes the UHS-II cards niche or even a niche offer.

A second General conclusion concerns the fact that the main characteristic on which microSD card do differ is the speed of the linear record. Actually, it in most cases depends on whether the card to save the video stream at a particular resolution, or how it will manifest itself in serial photography. And at first glance here it seems all very clear, after all, the standardization organization of the SD Association, has developed a simple system of marking classes which describe the building of a map.

The standard stipulates three characteristics, the ranking speed of the linear record: speed class, UHS speed class and speed class for the video. They were introduced into circulation successively, and therefore set their minimum speed intersect. However, if the manufacturer indicates in the description of the card, what class speed it relates to choose the appropriate option seems to be a very simple task.

The minimum speed of the linear record, MB/s Speed class UHS speed class Speed class video
2 C2
4 C4
6 C6 V6
10 C10 U1 V10
30 U3 V30
60 V60
90 V90

But there it was. As shown, the correct description of high-speed classes are almost never found. But it’s not that manufacturers are overly optimistic about the capabilities of their products, quite the contrary. Speed classes are declared in most cases is conservative, promising more low, than is actually performance. Moreover, many manufacturers confine myself to an indication of the speed class and the UHS speed class, and the parameter “speed class” video in General is lowered. More or less follows the established ranking system only SanDisk, while the bulk micro SD products from other manufacturers explicitly promises only belong to classes C10 and U3, which means a guaranteed write speed at 30 MB/s. In reality, the recording speed can exceed this value and twice, and three times, but to learn about it on formal grounds in advance is not always possible.

Sometimes more specific indicators of performance memory cards when recording can be found on the websites of their manufacturers. But the practice detailed description microSD cards, which are perceived by many as a simple accessory for consumer electronics, not as a high-tech device based on flash memory, cannot be called universal. In other words, without thinking to find out which memory cards will work faster when recording data, not so easy. This task can hardly be solved, while in the store, and the answer to the question “What to choose?” can only give tests like those conducted on our website.

An even more serious problem arises if you need to know not the linear speed, and performance maps for arbitrary reading and writing. These characteristics are critical in the case when the card is used in Android-device for storing programs and user files, but usually they are not addressed at all. Generally speaking, in the specification, the SD Association provides the class definitions of the speed for applications A1 and A2 for the performance under arbitrary operations, but in fact I use them even less frequently than classes of speed for video.

Class performance for applications Minimum speed of random read IOPS Minimum speed of random writes IOPS The minimum speed of the linear record, MB/s
A1 1500 500 10
A2 4000 2000 10

When we tested the 64-Gigabyte microSD card, class A1 was specified for only three of the seventeen cards, but tests showed that in fact, under its requirements fit more than half of the tested cards. Thus, the performance in random read – option carries even more uncertainty. And adopted the industry classification system speeds while the issue of choice is absolutely not facilitated.

Past testing of memory cards allowed to find out one more interesting detail. It turns out that the memory card based on MLC NAND, is still present in the market. However, they take approximately the same position as the SSD of two-bit memory. Keep them in your range only a few manufacturers (especially Samsung and Transcend), while most of the market options – the microSD card on the basis of TLC 3D NAND. Such exclusivity of products with two-bit memory, allowing you to position them as specialized high-reliability solutions, e.g. for video recorders, time continuous use which can total several years. Resource entries when it is artificially restricted by lowering the speed, so often as the microSD card having the name or description of the phrase High Endurance (“high reliability”), are typically slower than standard cards with TLC-memory inside, despite the higher price.

Now that we briefly know what generalized conclusions we came to when testing memory cards microSD 64 GB, it’s time to move on to a memory card twice the volume, test, that you kindly asked after the last of the material.

#Table tested microSDXC memory card 128GB

Thus, this test includes microSDXC card with UHS-I interface and a capacity of 128 GB.

Recall that these memory cards are the most versatile. They are suitable for compact devices that have slots for microSD installation initially, but can be placed in devices that support regular SD cards. There are special adapters that manufacturers microSD cards are often included in the package. It should be emphasized that all such adapter is a passive component that does not have any logic inside. They provide only mechanical compatibility and therefore do not affect performance, and there is no reason to avoid using them are there.

Participants test their stated manufacturers specifications listed in the following table.

For this test we’ve tried to gather all the relevant options microSDXC card with UHS-I interface and a capacity of 128 GB available. And as you can see, we almost succeeded. Not included in testing only memory cards are small producers of the third echelon, whose sales are insignificant on the General background. In other words, we checked all major memory cards available and popular in Russia, and they were many – two dozen.

SOURCE

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