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Kunst! Dig into the ice hyperlipaemia Michelin X-Ice North 4

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Michelin X-Ice North 4 from the first batch of cheaper Continental and Nokia ― a little less than six thousand rubles for tyre size 205/55 R16 vs 6500-8000 rubles for the competitors.

Tired to catch the car in the ruts that appear every spring in the left ranks of the high-speed road Moscow ― Moscow or St. Petersburg Kada? Tired of mud on the body? The main reason of these troubles, as shown by the Scandinavian study, is studded tires. They gnaw through the roadbed, resulting in the same ultrafine PM10 particles with a diameter of 10 microns or less. For combat the dust studded tires are banned in most European countries and even in Japan, comparable with Russia on climate change. But Michelin does not care a straw: their new X-Ice North 4 is nearly 290 spikes in a 19-inch wheel!

Central rib increases stability on the pavement where North 4 should not be worse than North 3. Reinforced frame Ironflex taken from tyres Michelin XM2. The tread depth is 8.4 mm, pattern mm depth around the spikes are purely decorative.

This is a record ― the nearest competitor at less than one third of the spikes. At the St. Petersburg presentation for comparison with the new Michelin are the leaders in independent tests ― 9 Nokian Hakkapeliitta and Continental IceContact 2. The difference in longitudinal dynamics are noticeable even without instruments. The brake way on ice with 60 km/h close to Nokian tyres and the Conti and the Michelin hyperspanner selected as aggregatelevel wagon Audi A6 allroad stops about a case before.

Instrumental measurements it is difficult to give an exact due to the changeable covers, but Racelogic VBox shows winning Michelin about two feet in braking distance on ice from 20 to five kilometers per hour. When comparing sets, worn mileage 10 000 km, the superiority of the tyre X-Ice North 4 even more — to a meter with the same slow 20-5 km/h.

In the tire of tradable size 205/55 R16 ― 250 studs, located in 22 longitudinal and 22 transverse series. Potential locations for studding ― about 1400, but in the end chose the “quiet” configuration. The tread of the tires wider than 255 mm is slightly different.

On a winding ice road Nokian and Continental are especially wrong in the slide safer and predictable than X-Ice North 4. But Michelin makes it significantly later, and higher grip in the longitudinal direction increase the effect of the stabilization system: XP-R-rum, and you’re back on the course. And the most amazing X-Ice North 4 all quiet on the pavement, where Hakka exasperated low-frequency rumble, and IceContact ― the clatter of studs affixed complex shape. And “zero” on the wheel from Michelin with clear. Due to what?

The tapered form of the end of the housing tenon is borrowed from Motorsport: when you tilt the carbide core is pulled out of ice. The relative positions of the spikes as much as twenty-two paths is optimized to avoid acoustic resonance phenomena.

Spikes ― the usual round shape, is inserted with regulated standards by the departure of 1.2 mm plus 0.3 mm For uniform wear of the stud body, now not aluminum, and steel (say, it starts to corrode the normal operation will not interfere). And the total increase in the mass of spikes on 200 grams offset about the same weight reduction of the tire. In the end it is no heavier than a Nord the third generation — 9.6 kg for size 205/55 R16. However, in the fixing of studs there is no progress. They are simply inserted into the rubber, and, judging by the reviews on Драйве2, it is the loss of “claws” was the main claim to the previous Nord.

For compact snow extended tread blocks with lots of sipes. Slots dowry U-shaped form, allowing you to block them sooner and harder. Alas, on tests such coverage is not submitted. Tread compound works down to minus 65 degrees.

Decisive for the coupling properties on ice is the number of spikes in an optimized, longer contact patch: they are here now fits as much as 24 against the previous eight-nine! However, on its own Michelin data on the ice in Russia is a maximum of five percent of the winter run. It turns out, most of the time the spikes bite the asphalt, wearing it especially hard when it is covered with liquid reagents ― this blows every foreign study.

The number of spikes in the end like as in conflict with the regulations. For example, according to the Russian rules of certification, the number of spikes must not exceed 60 pieces per meter protector. In Europe in 2013 is allowed only 50. If you follow the letter of the technical requirements, the biggest at the moment the tyre X-Ice North 4 size 265/40 R19 should be less than 109 spikes. And there are 287!

All tyres X-Ice North 4 produced in the performance of the XL (Extra Load, reinforced frame). Sizes from 15 to 17 inches in the suburbs (including for export), and 18-19 inches in Poland and Hungary. Later there will be 20-inch versions and version SUV.

To spend the market of tyre with a strong excess of the norms Michelin uses a legal loophole. Thorns can be as long as the tires have undergone a special wear test of the road called “over-run” designed and implemented by the world’s only certified Finnish laboratory Test World. Tested needs all of the 35 available for the upcoming winter sizes bore diameter from 15 to 19 inches. Michelin X-Ice North 4 successfully passed this test: in order to reduce wear of the fabric, among other things, new tires refused thermosetting mixture plotava pillow spike at low temperatures.

Ice track at the autodrome Saint-Petersburg liked it, although for completeness I wanted to ride in the snow and on the wet asphalt ― and cleared to dry pavement was only a small dvuhsotmetrovy straight. But slow it was not possible.

However, what abroad is growing skepticism about the “over-wound” — a very specific test conditions. For the measurement of wear is used not asphalt, and special granite (see box below). Research carried out at zero temperature, rather than winter. And the main thing ― the speed of travel of the car is only 100 km/h. how Often do you ride in an empty ring road with the Ring?

On winter models accounted for 55% of sales of the Russian tire market. The share of studded versions, according to Michelin, is 77% and growing.

Norway, for example, recently refused to allow on the road tire certified by “over-wound”. Fifty studs per meter ― and that’s that, or whatever it will be in Norwegian. However, Russia, Sweden and Finland from the consumer point of view X-Ice North 4 vying for the title of favorite the new winter season. A brief introduction has shown that he is certainly a cut better than dull Michelin third generation ― by the way, spiked old-fashioned, in accordance with the rate of the number of spikes per meter. Now waiting for the competitors three hundred thorns. Who’s first?

Gnaw granite of Kuru

The size of one 300-gram tiles for the certification test of granite Kuru — 90x75x20 mm. weighed Her before and after the test, pre-dried according to special standardized methods.

Finnish test center Test World since 1980-ies of the developed technique of measurement of the wear of the coating with the studded tires. The basic idea is that the bus (or rather, car) rolled a number of times in the sample of material, the weight of which is precisely measured at the beginning and end of the cycle. How much easier was the sample was so worn out surface. Experiments with different types of coatings forced to stop the granite from the Finnish field of Kuru. It was stated that the dies of this breed is the most stable properties over the entire area and depth.

In the package, on which the car passes, 15 tiles.

“Over-run” provides 200 passages on samples on the car, shod in new tyres features with the speed of 100 km/h ― it’s 400 effects of tires on granite. Granite cubes pre-cutting for the emergence of grooves and flow (wear a wet coating and a half to three times more dry). Initially after administration of the test evil tongues hinted at a friendly relationship test with the Finnish company Nokian, whose tires are the first to fully use the advantages of the new method of certification. But the example of Michelin says it is likely speculation.

Behind the scenes

Scale Michelin tire presentation, held in March, at least not inferior to that of many car ― dozens of journalists and bloggers, excellent organization and logistics. However, many of the guests were not in the theme. In the “Peregrine” I heard about this conversation between two young people: “Hey, how the tires to test? I first”. “Nothing complicated, take, and worn. Last time even a Porsche to drive Dali”. Fortunately, did not disappoint the weather: despite the beginning of calendar spring, steady minus 10-15 degrees allowed not only to travel around a full ice, but like right on the Fontanka and the Moika.

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Automotive

New SsangYong Korando was released on the Korean market

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ssangyong korando

Ssangyong korando. Внешность была анонсирована ещё три года назад концептом SIV-2 и почти в том же виде дошла до конвейера. Создатели говорят, что руководствовались трендом Low & Wide — делали Korando широким и приземистым. Примерные размеры: длина — 4440 мм, ширина — 1860, высота — 1640, база — 2675.

Konstantin Bolotov, 1 hour ago. Photos: SsangYong

The appearance was announced three years ago, the concept SIV-2 and almost in the same form reached the conveyor. The creators say they were guided by the trend of the Low & Wide — did Korando broad and squat. Approximate dimensions: length — 4440 mm, width — 1860; height — 1640, the base — 2675.

Today in South Korea opened taking orders for SsangYong Korando fourth generation (C300). Yes, the SUV is still not really shown, the description is sketchy, and the prices assigned. Equipment Shiny on the “mechanics” is worth 22 160 000 won (1.3 million rubles), two pedal drive option Delight is estimated at 25 000 230 (1.48 million), the top version of the Fantastic requests 27 930 000 (1,64 million). Cars will appear at dealers in March.

Decorated fancy, but somehow too Asian. Decorations in place an integrated exhaust pipes baffles. Behind the storage door — 551 liter volume by the VDA (486 l).

Officially named only one engine — the “newly designed” diesel 1.6 (according to rumors, 136), “first in class”. Petrol brethren will represent turboservice 1.5 (supposedly 163 HP) or 1.2. If gamma motor so new and important that later it will divide the family of Tivoli. Mild hybrid and fully electric version will come out eventually.

In the top configuration is Blaze Cockpit. Here digital tidy diagonal of 10.25 inches and nine-inch Central display. Around the perimeter of put led lighting. About the materials yet nothing is said.

Have a six-speed “mechanics” and “automatic” alternative is not visible. All-wheel drive is expected, but the rate on the front. Autopilot “2.5” relies on cameras and radar cruise control, and is called Deep Control. Higher level of safety is provided by seven airbags, the auto brake, the monitoring of dead zones, markings, and so on. Full premiere of Korando for foreign markets, in theory, will be the fifth March in Geneva. On the Russian expanses brand SsangYong is conserved, so the hope for new Actyon — the phantom.

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Watching the transformation of a sedan Mazda 6 in bourgeois

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Mazda 6. «Механики» больше нет, а цены начинаются с полутора миллионов рублей за двухлитровый седан и от 1,68 млн ― за машину с мотором 2.5. Новый наддувный двигатель мощностью 231 л.с. увеличивает стоимость до 2,24–2,42 млн.

“Mechanics” is no more, and the prices range from half a million rubles for a two-liter sedan and from 1.68 million per car with the 2.5 motor. New forced engine capacity of 231 HP increases the cost to 2.24–2.42 million

In the autumn of the current Mazda 6 will celebrate their seventh birthday, whereas generation of the Sonata or Optima change once in five years or more. However, the “six” doesn’t just remain in the ranks, keeping in Russia in fourth place in the segment behind the iconic Camry and changeable Hyundai-Kia. She is in the third facelift, the deep and serious, however, latecomers to the us for a year relative to other markets. Looks almost untouched: front chrome “ate” fog lights, back ran for the lamps, upgraded rims. But the content…

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Mazda is in no hurry to turn the salon into a TV Studio: the display has grown by an inch. To make room for suede “cross”, reduced height air deflectors. The start button need to reach. Instead of black will now be dark brown interiors.

The interior is redrawn from edge to edge, including the front and the door panels, seats, instrument panel. The idea remained the same, and if the changes are intended to emphasize the rich decoration materials. In plain sight laid the array of synthetic suede. Although here they ask big mediadisplay or button secondary functions, hiding on the left behind the steering wheel. The new chair is also implanted chrome, but the wow-effect they cause. Simply convenient: the front appeared quiet ventilation, and the rear even more clearly molded under two. More practical than the Mazda did not.

From new chairs with a deep theoretical background (see the sidebar “Technique”), but the lumbar support is governed only by the depth and bolsters on the cushion too intense squeeze of the thigh. The armrest is small. Rear knee and head high rider still in contact with the car.

At the beginning of the conveyor of life we are praised for the harmony. Now competitive background has changed, and “six” were noisy and hard. I almost said, “as in the best years”, but not time to reflect. For the sake of acoustic comfort the floor of the truck and the power of the cross is made tougher, minimized gaps in the bodywork and finishing panels, added insulation (particularly on the ceiling), revised aerodynamics of the bottom. And coupled with noise absorbing glass front doors, it gives an impressive result: in the car quiet at any speed and at any rpm.

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Active cruise control we did not get up because of the reluctance of the Japanese supplier to be certified in Russia. I more regret that I do not have a speed limiter. The sound of the closing door finally became a noble.

However, the sedan seriously up: with motor 2.5 and over 140 kg. Therefore, the claimed acceleration time to 100 km/h declined by almost half a second, and the nominal fuel consumption in the urban cycle added almost half a liter per hundred. However, Mazda is still easier for Toyota or the Koreans for a few tens of kilograms. Engines Skyactive-G 2.0 and 2.5 has changed hardly: last added two horsepower (now 194), both slightly increased torque, especially in low revs. By the way, about a third of all sales of the “six” had to modification with more powerful engine.

Cartoon speedometer is easy to read due to darkening of irrelevant numbers. But the digital speed display gives only the projector on the windshield with too small characters (in versions from 1.8 million rubles). The media system has grown inferior cameras.

However, atmospheric versions of presentations are not presented. All the attention — the new 2.5 turbo engine with a power of 231 HP With it the sedan for another 38 kg heavier, but, thanks to the powerful thrust from the bottom, the dynamics is hefty and good accuracy of acceleration control is great. So that sportregion not change the settings of the throttle, but only adjusts the algorithm of the six-speed “automatic machine” — in particular, the “cutting off” the last two speeds. To the box of questions was not. Switching is not seamless, but if specially accentuated, the driver felt the connection with the machine.

Led headlights with washers and lights are even in the “base”, and in top trim levels, the light becomes adaptive. Front optics inside it is decorated with a glamorous “star dust”. Incandescent lamps front and rear left only for navigation lights starter.

Chassis is reconfigured dramatically. Aside from the obvious calibration of spring and damper under the increased mass, the Japanese are played by different stiffness of the bushings, buffers, design of compression and rebound and so on. The course was smoother and finer, bumps no longer “poke” fares, and “vykat”. But they are still a bit too much, and the suspension lacks intensity, especially on the compression stroke. The feeling that they were going to some kind of German “premium” with sportpaket, you can not refuse.

Appeared heating zone of peace wiper blade (by the way, the leashes are raised in any position) and automatic door locking when driving off.

Handling accurate and clear, but lacks a spark. Brunt of whether to blame or soft tread Nokian Hakkapeliitta winter nesipbek R3, but rulitsya this Mazda with a slight laziness and a certain vagueness of feedback at low rotation angles. Effect from the more rigid mounting of the steering mechanism and new electric power steering has no feel. In the limit most likely “German” drift front than flirting back mnogoryichazhka. The six stable on straight, rides securely, strongly and safely.

The new wheel design, and available in sizes 17 and 19 inches (see photo), with no intermediate options. A stowaway is a smaller outer diameter.

In General, the degree of driving sensations higher than Korean cars of Toyota. And to accurately determine the location of the modified Mazda in the class in terms of comfort, the necessary comparative tests. The main thing — the sedans have increasingly become a way to caress not so much the drivers ‘ ambitions, how much self-esteem. Updated Mazda to be a common trend.

In addition to the bumpers and mirrors there is a completely different trunk lid.

Another question — what are the General prospects of this segment? Look around: people increasingly prefer low and malpractice sedan with a small trunk With a crossover. In the line of Mazda, for example, the CX-5 seems more versatile and balanced purchase for the same money. Is that peppy turbo engine will work a lure for buyers of the top six. Since, the assurance of representation, it did not appear under the bonnet of the updated crossover in Russia.

Passport data

Mazda 6 2.0 2.5 2.5 Turbo
Body
Body type sedan sedan sedan
Number of doors/seats 4/5 4/5 4/5
Length, mm 4870 4870 4870
Width, mm 1840 1840 1840
Height, mm 1450 1450 1450
Wheelbase, mm 2830 2830 2830
Track front/rear mm 1585/1575 1585/1575 1585/1575
Curb weight, kg 1522 1540 1578
Full weight, kg 2046 2057 2084
Trunk volume, l 429 429 429
Engine
Type petrol with direct fuel injection petrol with direct fuel injection petrol with direct fuel injection and turbocharging
Location front, transversely front, transversely front, transversely
The number and arrangement of cylinders 4 in a row 4 in a row 4 in a row
Number of valves 16 16 16
Working volume, cm3 1998 2488 2488
Max. power, HP/rpm 150/6000 194/6000 231/5000
Max. torque, N•m/rpm 213/4000 258/4000 420/2000
Transmission
Transmission automatic, six-speed automatic, six-speed automatic, six-speed
Drive front front front
Suspension
Front suspension independent, spring, McPherson independent, spring, McPherson independent, spring, McPherson
Rear suspension independent, spring, multilink independent, spring, multilink independent, spring, multilink
The front brakes ventilated disc ventilated disc ventilated disc
Rear brakes disk disk disk
Tires 225/55 R17 225/55 R17 225/45 R19
Ground clearance, mm 165 165 165
Performance characteristics
Maximum speed, km/h 207 223 239
Acceleration from 0 to 100 km/h, 10,8 8,2 7,0
Fuel consumption, l/100 km
— urban 8,4 (7,9)* 10,0 (9,1)* 10,7
— extra-urban cycle 5,5 (5,5) 5,6 (5,6) 5,9
combined 6,5 (6,3) 7,2 (6,9) 7,7
Fuel tank capacity, l 62 62 62
Fuel AI-95-98 AI-95-98 AI-95-98
* Skobkah the data for the versions with i-stop, and to modify the 2.5 with i — ELOOP.

Technique

Restyling is not the first time touched the suspension. At the front McPherson again increased diameter of the pistons, the valves changed and the buffer end. In addition, the increased gap between the buffer and shock-absorber rod. Changed the position of the spring and steering knuckle, upgraded stabilizer bushings and the steering mechanism with the amplifier reconfigured tougher attached to the subframe. A list of improvements like the rear mnogoryichazhka. In addition to the absorber and the supports of the stabilizer, changes have been made to the bushings of lower arms and upper pillow mounts. The purpose of this modification is the increase of the driving comfort or, in the words of a Japanese reporter, “smooth and linear driving characteristics”.

The degree of compression of both atmospheric engines SkyActiv-G is now equal to 13:1 (two-liter motor was previously 14:1). Junior Assembly added three Newton-meters at a constant 150 power, senior 2.5 ― two “horses” and two “Newton”. Reduced stunting traction when pressing on the gas pedal. The highlight of the 2.5 motor — condenser system of regeneration of electricity during braking and coasting i-ELOOP weight of 12 kg.

New in the range ― the 2.5 turbocharged engine with a compression ratio of 10.5:1 rated at 231 HP and an impressive torque of 420 N•m. Unit Skyactiv-G 2.5 T interesting Dynamic Pressure Turbo that simulates a turbine with variable geometry. There are two paths at the entrance to the turbocharger, one with a movable flap. Top right: at low engine speeds narrow channel accelerates the exhaust gases, increasing the rate of rotation of the impeller and the boost pressure. At the bottom — at the middle and high are both open channel. All the engines require gasoline of AI-95.

A six-speed “automatic” maslovskogo own production uncontested. Gear ratio motor 2.5 Turbo is a little close together, and the initial two-liter engine is shorter than the main pair.

The key idea of new seats is to position the basin vertically so having an S-shaped spine has occupied the optimal position. In addition, the pelvis must be fixed from moves to improve the feeling of the car. Then the man sitting behind the wheel, will be in the same dynamic equilibrium as you walk (right illustration). In English the pelvis called the pelvis, and for this pelvis mazdausa redrew the entire power structure of the seats, changed the profile and stiffness of the materials.

Behind the scenes

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Mazda always comes up with something. This time the test will pass in Vladivostok and Nakhodka devoid of snow due to natural anomalies. We managed not to be missed located in Vladik Maslowski plant. Invited from the shore of the sea of Japan program Manager of the project disappeared after the presentation, some technical questions were answered by the racer and brand Ambassador Boris Shulmeyster. In addition to the test drive I flew across the country to sfotkatsya on the background of the Pacific ocean and listen to the lecture “how not to get fat on mission” from former avtoparka, and now a fitness blogger Dmitry Putilina. The recipe is simple: we must eat less…

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The pilot and the Worker and the Grenadier: Soviet and Russian SUVs, not reached to the conveyor

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Here is the third article in a series about domestic cars of a single manufacturer. This time it is dedicated to the unknown prototypes-wheel-drive cars, the serial production of which, and especially the sale to private use of speech did not exist. At first they were a options army jeeps and rare off-road vehicles for agriculture, and soon after the Soviet collapse — polyamideimide version of future SUVs.

At the cradle of the domestic SUVs

Andistory of the Soviet civilian off-road four-wheel drive vehicles began soon after the great Patriotic war. Then in secrecy at the Gorky automobile plant was developed the project “Worker”, to create a light vehicle for use in rural areas. In October 1947 the name was assigned to the first prototype of GAZ-69-76 engine from “Victory” and vystupovanie in the back side of the hood reading “hard Worker.”

image003
Experienced rural utility vehicle GAZ-69-76 “Worker”, 1947

Then came four more prototypes with semi-circular cut-outs in the awning for the side Windows, massive wings, simplified poludverki and grille. When the veil of mystery was lifted, “Worker” had become “artillery tractor wheeled light.”

image005
A prototype all-wheel drive car GAZ-69, 1948 (from the archive of I. Paderin)

In 1954 in Gorky gathered three experienced all-terrain vehicle GAZ M-72 for “responsible workers of the Soviet village”. From a passenger “Victory” M-20 first issue was used reinforced bearing body with a radio receiver and hours, which added to the windshield washer. The transmission and drive axles borrowed from the GAZ-69. Soon, the plant began low-volume Assembly of the updated version of M-72 with the body and radiator shell from a model M-20V, but this event is beyond the scope of our article.

image007
Passenger vehicle GAZ M-72 on the basis of the “Victory” M-20. 1954 (from the archive of I. Paderin)

A year later, a compact 35-strong “selhozmashin” GAZ M-73 in two variants with manual transmission from the car “Moskvich-402” and a wheelbase of exactly two meters — closed coupé and the rear trunk with the spare wheel on the lid and all-metal pickup. Drive axles and a private transfer case was performed on sample units for model M-72. The machine was successfully tested, but due to the overflow of Gas to establish their release failed.

image009
Testing all-wheel drive passenger car GAZ M-73 (from the archive of I. Paderin)
image011
Pilot pickup-the all-terrain vehicle GAZ M-73. 1955 (from the archive of I. Paderin)

In 1950-e years the most productive manufacturer of the prototype of the future SUV was the Moscow plant of small cars (MZMA). On it, in the framework of the creation of a Soviet jeep, three years have collected 11 (!) uniform all-terrain vehicles in four versions, with different bodies and assemblies from production vehicles, which are officially intended to work in agriculture. The first was the car “Moskvich 4x4” with a 35-horsepower engine from the passenger model M-402, hinged front window and the rear cross seat. Strangely, he was remarkably similar to the us jeep Willys MB times, lend-lease, and inherited from him the most options.

image013
Rover MZMA “Moskvich 4×4” in the style of the American jeep. 1958 (from the archive research center at)

In 1959 MZMA on built five open 45-horsepower cars “Moskvich-415” on the units from M-410 in two versions and five hole versions of “Moskvich-416” trehgornyi all-metal body on a welded frame of channel iron side members which are more like rural traveling vehicles than the military jeeps. They weighed 1.2 tonnes and had a top speed of 106 km/h On the test car are unable to exceed the performance of the GAZ-69 and was rejected.

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