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Integrated urban development: innovation or second breath of forgotten ideas?

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Integrated urban development: innovation or second breath of forgotten ideas?

The term “integrated urban development” as the idea of creating a comfortable urban environment came to Russia 20 years ago in contrast to the spontaneous development of sleeping quarters. Quite a long time they were measuring the “adequacy of infrastructure” in large-scale projects, and only recently it began to be regarded at the micro level of the residential complex, aiming to ensure the resident is not just an apartment, and harmonious environment, where the territory, road, architecture living spaces adapted to the lifestyle. Surprisingly, today advanced the concept returns us to the architectural ideas of the early twentieth century.

“The development of modern architecture can be compared to a spiral motion. We keep coming back to the past, but do not go in a circle, and rise up, rethinking and improving the experience that has been accumulated before. Thus, the formulated once the ideas get a new life, but in a different capacity and at a different level,” – said architectural historian Airat Bagautdinov, the author of the project “Moscow through the eyes of an engineer”.

The idea of infrastructure in walking distance

The desire of the developer to provide the inhabitants with “their” infrastructure is not such an innovation as it may seem. So, the first Russian houses, where, besides the residential function, there is commercial, I think Bakhrushina house and Solodovnikova, built in 1901-1909.

Доходный дом Бахрушиных, 1901 г. (Москва, Тверская улица, 12)

Apartment house Bakhrushins, 1901 (Moscow, Tverskaya, 12)

The idea of “their” infrastructure is implemented in the house of the Bakhrushins brothers at the Sofia embankment (1901) – a charity project where the apartments (there were about 500) were provided rent free to widows with children and young women receiving higher education. Despite the charitable format of the project, the infrastructure of this pre-revolutionary LCD are the envy of many modern. So, here were its own dining room, bath, Laundry, medical office, library, nursery, kindergarten, primary school and two vocational institutions for boys and girls.

Доходный дом Солодовникова, 1907 г. (Москва, улица Гиляровского, 57)

Apartment house Solodovnikova, 1907 (Moscow, Gilyarovskogo street, 57)

After a few years, in 1907-1908, the concept of integrated infrastructure found in the tenement houses on the street Gilyarovskogo. In the house for single workers, for example, was a dining room, Laundry, bath, library, summer of the soul; and in the house of family (street Gilyarovskogo, 57) to the above commercial features a built-in attached kindergarten, the content of which is included in the rent.

Дом холостяков, 1914 г. (Москва, Большой Гнездниковский переулок, 10)

House of bachelors, 1914 (Moscow, Bolshoi Gnezdnikovsky pereulok, 10)

The third interesting project that, without a doubt, it is worth noting, speaking of the built-in infrastructure — Building Niernsee in the Big Gnezdnikovsky lane, better known as the home of the bachelors (built in 1914). Historians believe that this project was first implemented the idea to rent out the first floor. The first and ground floor, according to the opinion of the architect are not intended for life, surrendered as offices. So, there was the Moscow theatre-cabaret “Bat”, publishing house of the newspaper “the day Before”, and on the roof is another attraction of this first Moscow skyscraper (at that time it was called toucherism) were the restaurant is “Cover”, an exhibition hall and a shooting pavilion.

Дом-коммуна в Хавско-Шаболовском переулке, 1929 г.

A commune house in Khavskaya-Shabolovska lane, 1929

Later, this concept found its continuation in the so-called houses-communes, which, in the opinion of the architects, had become a “way of life of the future.” For example, in the Central building of a complex of houses-communes Khavskaya-Sobolevskogo lane (1929) was a children’s garden, a dining room, library, club, on the top floor – a gym with access to the roof: in the daytime there was a Solarium in the evening — your own summer cinema! Cabin, which was projected on the wall of the adjacent building is preserved today.

Дом на набережной (Дом правительства), 1931 г.

The house on the embankment (government House), 1931

The famous House on the embankment, or government House, built in 1931, featured the richest at the time infrastructure. In addition to residential property, there were a theatre, club, cinema “Drummer”, a hairdressing salon, cafe, home life, post office, savings Bank, and on the roof of one of the Central buildings housed the kindergarten.

ЖК «Лебедь», 1967–1973 гг.

The LCD “Swan”, 1967-1973.

History remembers and projects-utopia to come true which was not. For example, in the project of residential complex “Swan” infrastructure provided for the nursery, meeting room hire, seasonal items, office orders (a type of Concierge service), Laundry-dry cleaning, vending machine area, a medical centre, a library, a photographic laboratory, cold storage. Functions that require operating costs, in practice, have not been implemented, but an interesting fact that list the necessary infrastructure was formed by the architect Andrei Meerson the results of the survey of citizens that gave rise to the term “architecture of collaboration”.

The idea of a landscaped courtyard area

In a professional environment I believe that the prototype ideas adjoining yards became the architectural concept of “city-garden”, proposed by English sociologist E. Howard in 1898, His followers in Russia in the 1920s seriously discussed the possibility of development of Moscow for this today obviously utopian scenario. According to the basics of theory, a garden city shall consist of cottages with their local area (at least a little). The actual embodiment of this concept was only in the artists ‘ village of Sokol, but in a transformed form — in a number of famous (and not) projects with the so-called courtyards, and gardens.

One of them is Khavskaya-Shabolovke residential area, constructed in 1927-1930, the Architects proposed to place the house in a zigzag pattern, the contours of which have been created by private courtyards. It didn’t affect the construction budget, which allowed the experiment to take place.

Even in the buildings of the late Soviet era, despite the prevalence of commercial construction, there are projects on the organization of yard space will give odds to many modern. They include a pilot residential district North Chertanovo, where in 1970-ies was designed underground Parking, and the whole land became the yard without cars. The travel of automobile transport on the territory provided solely for emergency services.

At various times, architects have attempted the organization of recreational walking areas on the roof, as, for example, in the residential complex “Swan” four buildings on a common podium, where on the roof of the stylobate was planned a device of playgrounds and sports grounds. However, in the climate of Moscow most such projects has not been implemented.

Хавско-Шаболовский жилой квартал, 1927–1928 гг.

Khavskaya-Shabolovsky residential quarter, 1927-1928.

Двор без машин в Северном Чертанове, 1972–1983 гг.

No cars in the yard in the Northern Districts, 1972-1983.

The idea of organizing in the hallways and lounge areas

The idea was first implemented in the Building of the Council of Ministers on Leninsky Prospekt (1939-1950).. This architect Ivan Zholtovsky known as the first apartment building with a prototype of underground Parking (several cars), and also the fact that there first appeared a spacious lobby at the entrance. Intended these spaces to relax and chat with residents and guests. In particular, there was a fireplace, armchairs, tables, i.e., all the conditions for reading or playing chess with a neighbor.

A more recent example, where the lobby was given the role of public space – already mentioned above the experimental area in the North Chertanovo. As already noted, residents of the complex were Parking the car under the building directly from the Parking to the Elevator got in a front group. Space safely accommodate about 30-40 people, with clear instructions how to use it, there was (surprisingly for a time when any social movement was strictly regulated). Each entrance has its own history, developed primarily by enthusiasts: winter garden, kids club, aware of the facts of use of these lobbies like the video for the collective movie in the era of the first VCRs. By the way, access to the entrance from the courtyard was carried out through panoramic glass doors on the ground level (which, incidentally, recently began to meet in class projects by contemporary developers).

Дом Совета министров, 1939–1950 гг.

The building of the Council of Ministers, 1939-1950.

The idea of rational planning

Finding solutions for the internal space that would meet the needs of the target audience, the architects also tried to pay attention. The need to fit into the allotted budget and save led to the original and not always unambiguous solutions. So, in the already mentioned House of bachelors (1914), the architects refused to kitchens, considering that under the mini-area is enough for a single man, and the Melnikov House (1927), for example, had the form of a truncated circle.

Дом Мельникова, 1927–1929 гг.

The Melnikov house, 1927-1929 years.

Indeed the rational planning decisions were made possible by the use in the construction of concrete structures. In particular, the monolithic technology has allowed us to implement them in the famous Narkomfin Building. Space most of the apartments have been designed vertically: application areas – bedrooms and bathrooms – ceiling height of 2.25 metres; the living room in parallel to 3.5–4.5 meters (depending on type of apartment). It is possible to reduce the inevitable losses on the corridors to a minimum and quite rationally to fit the needs of a family on a compact area within the project budget.

Дом Наркомфина, 1930 гг.

The Narkomfin building, 1930

Дом на Моховой, 1934 г.;

The house on moss, 1934;

Narkomfin without reason is considered a source of architectural ideas. Here, for example, pioneered the idea of panoramic Windows, according to which the urban landscape should be a continuation of the interior of the apartment. By the way, the residential building of the Narkomfin House is situated on a plot including insolation: all apartments will be provided with morning sun in the bedroom and afternoon in the living room. The idea of duplex apartments later carried out in the House on moss (1934; it is believed that it was built for the leadership of the NKVD): living under on the top floor, had an additional row of Windows that allowed the owners to plan the space, including vertically. Another interesting planning decision was the room for the housekeeper, provided in each apartment.

By the way, about the height of the ceilings. The widespread belief that the hated today 2,40 became the invention of constructivism is not entirely correct: in the 1920s-1930s, the rate ceilings were 2.9 to 3.2 meters. The regression happened much later. And it is worth noting that the role of insolation and high ceilings is not restricted to aesthetics. In those days there was such a wide selection of medications and the importance of ventilation was given including the function of prevention.

Integrated development of the territory: end of an era and the beginning of a new

Комплекс Park Place, 1992 г.

Complex Park Place, 1992

One of the few examples of buildings of the late twentieth century, where an attempt to combine the architectural ideas in the project of complex development of territory (as it would be called today), you can call Park Place on Leninsky Prospekt. This complex was started in 1989 as a home for foreign diplomats. It under one roof United office and living space, shops and services, sports grounds, tennis court, and turned into the atrium, the courtyard became a place for business meetings in any weather.

The transition to a new economic paradigm affected the development of architecture. “What happened with the 1990s in architecture, residential real estate, I see it as a setback, says Airat Bagautdinov. Only in the last ten to twenty years, as the country is again gaining intellectual and economic potential, began again to appear interesting projects, where ideas from the past re-interpreted at another level, as happens when the movement of the spiral”, – he said.

As implemented ideas of the past in the present project?

ЖК «Династия» на Хорошёвском шоссе

“In the residential complex “Dynasty” on Khoroshevskoe highway, in my opinion, the developer failed to take into account many of the ideas and achievements of the XX century. For example, in the complex the residential complex “Dynasty” there is a kindergarten with a separate territory, premises for shops on the ground floors, green yard, which is completely given to pedestrians, underground Parking. Another implemented idea of the XX century – flexible design solutions, which appeared first, the constructivists, and in the 1960s-1970s – at the so-called brutalists. Here the developer has gone further, proposing to combine the adjacent apartments and to adapt the space inside to your liking. In this project we see the embodiment of architectural style and use of the discoveries of that time, but on another, rethought level. In this sense, the name of the project fully corresponds to its essence,” – said Ayrat Bagautdinov.



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Home&Garden

Lamp “Fold” of woolen fabric

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Lamp “Fold” of woolen fabric

Scottish designer, Kyla McCallum, inspired by the ancient Chinese art of origami, has created a modern pendant lamp “Fold”.

Developed for the Norwegian brand Northern and presented at the recent Stockholm furniture fair, the lamp is made from a specially treated wool fabrics that can maintain the desired shape. Lamp diameter is 84 cm and it is available in green, grey or pink.
 

Светильник в интерьере

The lamp has a tilt mechanism and one hand movement you can direct the light to the desired location. The wool material of the lamp, has acoustic properties that dampen ambient sound, and absorb noise.

Светильник из шерсти 

Шерстяной светильник

Kyla McCallum talented designer and founder of design Studio Foldability in London. Tartan origin Kyla went to a prestigious art School in Glasgow. It is engaged in the development of interior design, window dressing, lighting design.
 

Kyla McCallum

Kyla personally works on each project and collaborates with many professionals, including artists, engineers, graphic designers, art Directors, photographers and producers. In recent years the designer has developed many methods for folding such soft materials like fabric and paper, she also is experimenting with laminate and metal. Unusual and at the same time, elegant projects, the young designer is always to surprise and delight.

Fold – the result of several years of experimentation, combining a unique combination of handmade and innovation that the designer spent with tissues. Visually beautiful and soft to the touch, the Fold lamp brings the elegance of the Orient in the interiors of the world.

Natalia Mishina



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IKEA has released a collection WINTER 2018

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IKEA has released a collection WINTER 2018

Winter holidays is a pleasant bustle in anticipation of a fun celebration. Every family has its own traditions associated with preparing for the New year and Christmas: some decorate all around and arrange a Grand party while others prefer to relax in solitude and enjoy the silence.

At IKEA there are suitable solutions for any scenario – winter collection WINTER 2018. Fluffy Christmas trees, accessories for home decoration, festive lighting, cozy textiles, beautiful tableware, Christmas decorations, wrapping paper, and delicious gingerbread cookies, gingerbread house and advent calendar to count down the days before Christmas will be much nicer.

Part of the collection was created in collaboration with famous Swedish designer BEA schönfeld – a master craftsman to make unusual clothes and art objects from paper. The designer has come up with incredible images for Lady Gaga, björk and musicians of the Royal Swedish Opera, and IKEA has created a series of magical Christmas decorations and home accessories – wreaths with swallows, lamps with proteins and velvet cushions with floral patterns.

Винтер 2018 

Икеа Винтер 

IKEA Winter18 

Зимняя коллекция ИКЕА 

Новогодний декор ИКЕА 

Коллекция зимы 2018



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IKEA continues the action “Let’s play”. Change children’s lives for the better

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IKEA continues the action “Let’s play”. Change children’s lives for the better

IKEA continues the campaign “Let’s play a game!” which will help change children’s lives for the better. As in last year all arriving within the stock received from the sale of the toy collection SHOCKETT, created by children’s drawings, received on account of the charitable Fund IKEA. The money will be spent on social programmes in Russia.

From 4 November to 22 December 2018 by purchasing in hypermarkets IKEA children’s toys from this collection, not only will you be able to help children, but will make the world a little better.

Сагоскатт

Children will also be able to take active part in the action. So from 4 to 11 November in IKEA stores and shopping centers of MEGA children 4 to 12 years will be invited to dream and invent to their fantastic character, drawing it on paper. It is quite possible that the picture of your child will become the prototype of a new toy for the collection SHOCKETT next year.

Игрушки созданные по детским рисункам

As the head of the Department of social and environmental programmes IKEA Natalia Bereslavskaya: “We believe that the game is able to change the everyday lives of everyone. The goal of the campaign “Let’s play” – to create new opportunities for the development of children worldwide, despite the living conditions in which they found themselves“.

Детские игрушки ИКЕА

Vyacheslav Rusin



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