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Integrated urban development: innovation or second breath of forgotten ideas?

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Integrated urban development: innovation or second breath of forgotten ideas?

The term “integrated urban development” as the idea of creating a comfortable urban environment came to Russia 20 years ago in contrast to the spontaneous development of sleeping quarters. Quite a long time they were measuring the “adequacy of infrastructure” in large-scale projects, and only recently it began to be regarded at the micro level of the residential complex, aiming to ensure the resident is not just an apartment, and harmonious environment, where the territory, road, architecture living spaces adapted to the lifestyle. Surprisingly, today advanced the concept returns us to the architectural ideas of the early twentieth century.

“The development of modern architecture can be compared to a spiral motion. We keep coming back to the past, but do not go in a circle, and rise up, rethinking and improving the experience that has been accumulated before. Thus, the formulated once the ideas get a new life, but in a different capacity and at a different level,” – said architectural historian Airat Bagautdinov, the author of the project “Moscow through the eyes of an engineer”.

The idea of infrastructure in walking distance

The desire of the developer to provide the inhabitants with “their” infrastructure is not such an innovation as it may seem. So, the first Russian houses, where, besides the residential function, there is commercial, I think Bakhrushina house and Solodovnikova, built in 1901-1909.

Доходный дом Бахрушиных, 1901 г. (Москва, Тверская улица, 12)

Apartment house Bakhrushins, 1901 (Moscow, Tverskaya, 12)

The idea of “their” infrastructure is implemented in the house of the Bakhrushins brothers at the Sofia embankment (1901) – a charity project where the apartments (there were about 500) were provided rent free to widows with children and young women receiving higher education. Despite the charitable format of the project, the infrastructure of this pre-revolutionary LCD are the envy of many modern. So, here were its own dining room, bath, Laundry, medical office, library, nursery, kindergarten, primary school and two vocational institutions for boys and girls.

Доходный дом Солодовникова, 1907 г. (Москва, улица Гиляровского, 57)

Apartment house Solodovnikova, 1907 (Moscow, Gilyarovskogo street, 57)

After a few years, in 1907-1908, the concept of integrated infrastructure found in the tenement houses on the street Gilyarovskogo. In the house for single workers, for example, was a dining room, Laundry, bath, library, summer of the soul; and in the house of family (street Gilyarovskogo, 57) to the above commercial features a built-in attached kindergarten, the content of which is included in the rent.

Дом холостяков, 1914 г. (Москва, Большой Гнездниковский переулок, 10)

House of bachelors, 1914 (Moscow, Bolshoi Gnezdnikovsky pereulok, 10)

The third interesting project that, without a doubt, it is worth noting, speaking of the built-in infrastructure — Building Niernsee in the Big Gnezdnikovsky lane, better known as the home of the bachelors (built in 1914). Historians believe that this project was first implemented the idea to rent out the first floor. The first and ground floor, according to the opinion of the architect are not intended for life, surrendered as offices. So, there was the Moscow theatre-cabaret “Bat”, publishing house of the newspaper “the day Before”, and on the roof is another attraction of this first Moscow skyscraper (at that time it was called toucherism) were the restaurant is “Cover”, an exhibition hall and a shooting pavilion.

Дом-коммуна в Хавско-Шаболовском переулке, 1929 г.

A commune house in Khavskaya-Shabolovska lane, 1929

Later, this concept found its continuation in the so-called houses-communes, which, in the opinion of the architects, had become a “way of life of the future.” For example, in the Central building of a complex of houses-communes Khavskaya-Sobolevskogo lane (1929) was a children’s garden, a dining room, library, club, on the top floor – a gym with access to the roof: in the daytime there was a Solarium in the evening — your own summer cinema! Cabin, which was projected on the wall of the adjacent building is preserved today.

Дом на набережной (Дом правительства), 1931 г.

The house on the embankment (government House), 1931

The famous House on the embankment, or government House, built in 1931, featured the richest at the time infrastructure. In addition to residential property, there were a theatre, club, cinema “Drummer”, a hairdressing salon, cafe, home life, post office, savings Bank, and on the roof of one of the Central buildings housed the kindergarten.

ЖК «Лебедь», 1967–1973 гг.

The LCD “Swan”, 1967-1973.

History remembers and projects-utopia to come true which was not. For example, in the project of residential complex “Swan” infrastructure provided for the nursery, meeting room hire, seasonal items, office orders (a type of Concierge service), Laundry-dry cleaning, vending machine area, a medical centre, a library, a photographic laboratory, cold storage. Functions that require operating costs, in practice, have not been implemented, but an interesting fact that list the necessary infrastructure was formed by the architect Andrei Meerson the results of the survey of citizens that gave rise to the term “architecture of collaboration”.

The idea of a landscaped courtyard area

In a professional environment I believe that the prototype ideas adjoining yards became the architectural concept of “city-garden”, proposed by English sociologist E. Howard in 1898, His followers in Russia in the 1920s seriously discussed the possibility of development of Moscow for this today obviously utopian scenario. According to the basics of theory, a garden city shall consist of cottages with their local area (at least a little). The actual embodiment of this concept was only in the artists ‘ village of Sokol, but in a transformed form — in a number of famous (and not) projects with the so-called courtyards, and gardens.

One of them is Khavskaya-Shabolovke residential area, constructed in 1927-1930, the Architects proposed to place the house in a zigzag pattern, the contours of which have been created by private courtyards. It didn’t affect the construction budget, which allowed the experiment to take place.

Even in the buildings of the late Soviet era, despite the prevalence of commercial construction, there are projects on the organization of yard space will give odds to many modern. They include a pilot residential district North Chertanovo, where in 1970-ies was designed underground Parking, and the whole land became the yard without cars. The travel of automobile transport on the territory provided solely for emergency services.

At various times, architects have attempted the organization of recreational walking areas on the roof, as, for example, in the residential complex “Swan” four buildings on a common podium, where on the roof of the stylobate was planned a device of playgrounds and sports grounds. However, in the climate of Moscow most such projects has not been implemented.

Хавско-Шаболовский жилой квартал, 1927–1928 гг.

Khavskaya-Shabolovsky residential quarter, 1927-1928.

Двор без машин в Северном Чертанове, 1972–1983 гг.

No cars in the yard in the Northern Districts, 1972-1983.

The idea of organizing in the hallways and lounge areas

The idea was first implemented in the Building of the Council of Ministers on Leninsky Prospekt (1939-1950).. This architect Ivan Zholtovsky known as the first apartment building with a prototype of underground Parking (several cars), and also the fact that there first appeared a spacious lobby at the entrance. Intended these spaces to relax and chat with residents and guests. In particular, there was a fireplace, armchairs, tables, i.e., all the conditions for reading or playing chess with a neighbor.

A more recent example, where the lobby was given the role of public space – already mentioned above the experimental area in the North Chertanovo. As already noted, residents of the complex were Parking the car under the building directly from the Parking to the Elevator got in a front group. Space safely accommodate about 30-40 people, with clear instructions how to use it, there was (surprisingly for a time when any social movement was strictly regulated). Each entrance has its own history, developed primarily by enthusiasts: winter garden, kids club, aware of the facts of use of these lobbies like the video for the collective movie in the era of the first VCRs. By the way, access to the entrance from the courtyard was carried out through panoramic glass doors on the ground level (which, incidentally, recently began to meet in class projects by contemporary developers).

Дом Совета министров, 1939–1950 гг.

The building of the Council of Ministers, 1939-1950.

The idea of rational planning

Finding solutions for the internal space that would meet the needs of the target audience, the architects also tried to pay attention. The need to fit into the allotted budget and save led to the original and not always unambiguous solutions. So, in the already mentioned House of bachelors (1914), the architects refused to kitchens, considering that under the mini-area is enough for a single man, and the Melnikov House (1927), for example, had the form of a truncated circle.

Дом Мельникова, 1927–1929 гг.

The Melnikov house, 1927-1929 years.

Indeed the rational planning decisions were made possible by the use in the construction of concrete structures. In particular, the monolithic technology has allowed us to implement them in the famous Narkomfin Building. Space most of the apartments have been designed vertically: application areas – bedrooms and bathrooms – ceiling height of 2.25 metres; the living room in parallel to 3.5–4.5 meters (depending on type of apartment). It is possible to reduce the inevitable losses on the corridors to a minimum and quite rationally to fit the needs of a family on a compact area within the project budget.

Дом Наркомфина, 1930 гг.

The Narkomfin building, 1930

Дом на Моховой, 1934 г.;

The house on moss, 1934;

Narkomfin without reason is considered a source of architectural ideas. Here, for example, pioneered the idea of panoramic Windows, according to which the urban landscape should be a continuation of the interior of the apartment. By the way, the residential building of the Narkomfin House is situated on a plot including insolation: all apartments will be provided with morning sun in the bedroom and afternoon in the living room. The idea of duplex apartments later carried out in the House on moss (1934; it is believed that it was built for the leadership of the NKVD): living under on the top floor, had an additional row of Windows that allowed the owners to plan the space, including vertically. Another interesting planning decision was the room for the housekeeper, provided in each apartment.

By the way, about the height of the ceilings. The widespread belief that the hated today 2,40 became the invention of constructivism is not entirely correct: in the 1920s-1930s, the rate ceilings were 2.9 to 3.2 meters. The regression happened much later. And it is worth noting that the role of insolation and high ceilings is not restricted to aesthetics. In those days there was such a wide selection of medications and the importance of ventilation was given including the function of prevention.

Integrated development of the territory: end of an era and the beginning of a new

Комплекс Park Place, 1992 г.

Complex Park Place, 1992

One of the few examples of buildings of the late twentieth century, where an attempt to combine the architectural ideas in the project of complex development of territory (as it would be called today), you can call Park Place on Leninsky Prospekt. This complex was started in 1989 as a home for foreign diplomats. It under one roof United office and living space, shops and services, sports grounds, tennis court, and turned into the atrium, the courtyard became a place for business meetings in any weather.

The transition to a new economic paradigm affected the development of architecture. “What happened with the 1990s in architecture, residential real estate, I see it as a setback, says Airat Bagautdinov. Only in the last ten to twenty years, as the country is again gaining intellectual and economic potential, began again to appear interesting projects, where ideas from the past re-interpreted at another level, as happens when the movement of the spiral”, – he said.

As implemented ideas of the past in the present project?

ЖК «Династия» на Хорошёвском шоссе

“In the residential complex “Dynasty” on Khoroshevskoe highway, in my opinion, the developer failed to take into account many of the ideas and achievements of the XX century. For example, in the complex the residential complex “Dynasty” there is a kindergarten with a separate territory, premises for shops on the ground floors, green yard, which is completely given to pedestrians, underground Parking. Another implemented idea of the XX century – flexible design solutions, which appeared first, the constructivists, and in the 1960s-1970s – at the so-called brutalists. Here the developer has gone further, proposing to combine the adjacent apartments and to adapt the space inside to your liking. In this project we see the embodiment of architectural style and use of the discoveries of that time, but on another, rethought level. In this sense, the name of the project fully corresponds to its essence,” – said Ayrat Bagautdinov.

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A romantic meal on Valentine’s Day

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Romantic meal for Valentine’s Day

Here come the most cheerful and romantic holiday for all lovers – Valentine’s Day. And, of course, this day I want to be so special, something to surprise and please your mate.

It can be tender declarations of love, Valentine wishes, flowers, chocolates, surprises and, of course, a romantic meal with a good glass of wine or champagne. Today beautiful decoration of the festive table for Valentine’s Day we learned from Sheila, the owner of a blog about design and décor of the Maison de Cinq.

This is a beautiful romantic meal are designed in delicate pink tones.

In the middle of the table spread out a velvet cloth carpet powder colored.

Roses are symbol of love, so for table decorations were chosen small roses of three different colors.

Since this is a dinner for two lovers, then plates white with pink rim arranged for two people.

Gold Cutlery are perfectly combined with brass candlesticks and add vintage style and charm to the feast.

Delicate wine glasses with gold engravings are doubtless the decoration of the table. And, of course, love potion – wine, and it is also pink.

Small glass round vases with individual rosettes are placed on the table.

A bouquet of roses in a large vase set on the dresser.

Maybe you get inspired by this table or create their own. Importantly, in the evening you light a candle, turn up the music, fill the glasses and I’ll say it again your sweetheart cherished words of love. Congratulations on your Valentine’s Day! Love and be loved!

Irina Rusina

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IKEA has launched a campaign called “Better sleep”

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IKEA has launched a campaign called “Better sleep”

Sleep is an integral part of our lives. And how it will be strong and meaningful depends on many things: our health, wellbeing, mood and performance. In Moscow in the loft “Module” IKEA has unveiled its answer to the important question of “How to sleep well?”, thereby opening the door to the world of comfortable sleep and pleasant dreams.

In his speech General Director of retail chain IKEA in Russia Pontus of Intell said that “IKEA is always thinking about life at home and how to make it even better. We all have our needs in the field of comfortable sleep. IKEA is considered an expert in this field. We have over 650 products for a comfortable sleep. Since 2000 when we opened our first store in Russia, we have sold more than 4 million mattresses, blankets 8.5 million and about 20 million pillows“.

Понтус Эрнтелл

The sales Manager IKEA Russia Yulia Ivashechkina said that “the company IKEA regularly carries out their own surveys, and during one of them received interesting information. It turns out that during sleep the person turns over an average of 26 times. One of the features of families in Russia is that many of them sleeping on the sofa beds. The number of such families is about 37 percent. Also IKEA have found that in my entire life in a dream a person spends on average 23 years (with average life expectancy 71 years). Another interesting fact: about 17 percent of families with children in Novosibirsk sleep with their children in the same bed, because it is so much warmer“.

ИКЕА Лучше спите

There is no universal recipe how to sleep well, but there are some life hacks, how to choose a comfortable place to sleep and IKEA helps the people of Russia in this. For example, IKEA offers mattresses, which dampen oscillatory movement, thereby making sleep more comfortable. IKEA offers mattresses of different thicknesses, including those with a lifting head, to make it easier to get out of bed.

Recently IKEA has a new section on how to sleep comfortably. In this section there are numerous tips on how to significantly improve your sleep. You will learn: how to choose a mattress, what is the difference between soft and hard pillows, which is important for creating a comfortable microclimate in bed, much better sleep and much more.”

Инсталляция ИКЕА

Fulfilling duties of the head of the marketing Department of IKEA Russia Inna Romagnoli said that “IKEA has interviewed 60 thousand people, asking them the question: “What man can compare with the sensations of emotions, when they slept great”. Among the popular answers were “massage 4 hours 4 hands”, “to find the money in the jacket, month relaxing on the beach”, “fall in love”“.

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IKEA has decided to provide undeniable proof that a good night’s sleep in the most unexpected place. For example, in the train. Therefore, IKEA has launched a brand car “Better sleep” with individual solutions for each passenger. Brand IKEA car will be part of the trains plying between Moscow and St. Petersburg. To ride it will be for months.

Поезд ИКЕА

Anyone citizen of our country will be free to ride in this car. This will need to take part in the competition on the IKEA website where to answer the question, “why do you need to sleep during the trip to Moscow or Saint-Petersburg”. The jury will select the most original story, the authors of which will get the coveted tickets.

Vyacheslav Rusin

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Living room furniture MebShop – original interior with unusual design approach

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Living room furniture MebShop – original interior with unusual design approach

Living room is a public room that is exposed to public view. In addition to owners who spend a lot of time in this room, invited guests, partners at work, friends and family. Therefore, the interior room is paid maximum attention compared to other rooms in a residential area.

Shop MebShop took care of that with the choice of furnishings, namely, choosing furniture for the living room, no problems.

What should be in the living room

Mostly living room is the large and bright room in the apartment or house. Accordingly, the furniture is selected of a certain type. This is mandatory:

  • upholstered furniture – sofa, chairs, couch, sofa, etc. this furniture is Selected in accordance with the size of the living room if the living room is large, you can buy a bulky solid furniture, and for small rooms you can find compact, but roomy sitting area;
  • wall. Is a modular furniture set which can contain multiple different items, bedside table under the TV, cabinets, cupboards, shelves, mezzanine, bedside tables with drawers, etc. you can Combine as you like;
  • bedside table under the TV. This is an option for those who do not want to pile up the living space or living room if small size. These tables are functional and practical, as they allow to determine not only the TV but also to place certain things;
  • coffee table. Is the furniture in the living room, without which not to do when building a room. It plays a functional role. It can accommodate all sorts of stuff, for example, console, vase, magazines, gadgets. You can arrange a tea party, etc.

There are still many pieces of furniture that will fit in the living room, as manufacturers today offer a huge assortment.

Тумбочка под телевизор

Principles of selection of furniture in the living room

Before you buy the furniture in the room, it is necessary to study the main points of interior design:

  • to determine the overall style and color scheme – choosing furniture, starting from the design space;
  • to determine the purpose of living. You need to figure out what furniture, what it should be. For example, just comfortable and convenient, or at the same time practical and functional;
  • how to arrange furniture. Depends on how many interior items have to be purchased.

Стенка Грин

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Ремонт Экспо 2019

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