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Automotive

Find the advantages of individual control valves

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The authors of the system say that it can help to upgrade already manufactured engines. Yes, you will have to change the head unit, but it is much easier than to design the entire engine from scratch.

About the benefits of change of phases of gas distribution of internal combustion engines intake and (or) issue we talked eleven years ago. Now these motors is very common. Sometimes they are complemented by the device, changing the height of the valve lift. And yet full freedom of regulation there. After all, “smart” actuators do not act on the valves, and move a few degrees camshafts, rotation of which is associated with the rotation of the crankshaft. Or such system transferred to the valve operation from one Cam to another with a different profile. To save the phase adjustment from any restrictions allows other technology: Intelligent Valve Actuation (IVA) from the British company Camcon Auto.

It looks like the IVA mechanism for one cylinder. On each valve (in this example four of them) — your mini camshaft pivoted to any desired angle by an electric motor, plus your mechanism when the Cam–valve.

In this intelligent actuator camshaft, each valve is not constantly spinning, and is rotated only at the time when the valve should open or close. And the rotation is first in one direction and then in another. Cam with valve connects desmodromic mechanism. That is, the reverse is not due to the spring, and, again, strictly controlled by the camshaft. The valve can be opened much faster than in the conventional engine, then leave almost motionless, then close. You can get it to open twice in one stroke. Or one software to change the firing order in the cylinders. Could I ask you a personal profile raising and lowering each cylinder at any time to change it.

The system works with motors whose working range is up to 6500 rpm Full valve lift occurs for five milliseconds.

Conventional engine technology, the IVA may, at the desire of programmers to realize any thermodynamic cycle — Otto even though Miller/Atkinson, even with compression-ignition HCCI, though it Mostovskoy version of SCCI. Such a motor is possible by simply replacing the program to translate from the four-stroke cycle two-stroke or even ultra-low-cost 12-stroke. The latter is a variation of the old ideas off some of its cylinders under low load. But in a conventional engine electronics deactivates, for example, half of the cylinders for a certain long time. And in the case of an IVA all the cylinders evenly. But only one of them gets the fuel and activates the ignition times in four beats, and each third their stroke (once per 12 cycles). So all the cylinders remain in the normal operating temperature.

In the case of in-line motor (for example, converted in the form of experience of the Quartet JLR Ingenium) each miniature camshaft IVA, oriented transversely to the common axis of the internal combustion engine (i.e. the axis of the crankshaft).

Of course, the Camcon is not the first firm, to reflect on the full system and a completely free control over valve timing. Such projects existed at GM and Ford, Ricardo and Lotus Engineering. Recent example of the need to remember system Qamfree no single camshaft. The development started in Koenigsegg, and continued in the firm FreeValve along with the Koros. In Camcon Auto, as you can see, I went the opposite way — put the personal on the camshaft for each valve.

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To demonstrate the actual work IVA the authors of the device have altered motor Jaguar and released such a car on road tests.

As the developers say, potentially IVA can reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 15-20%. To test a sample of engines (“turboservice” 2.0) were able to demonstrate fuel savings of 7.5%. In a series of IVA would be cheaper than the hybrid powerplant, think the British. And the cars with the petrol unit would be roughly comparable to diesel. Firm Camcon is ready to supply manufacturers sets their actuators and kits for the adaptation to engines or to cooperate with suppliers of components. Brits predict that production cars will appear in the IVA for five years.

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Automotive

Lifting, filling and not only was the Soviet special vehicles for airports

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In 1950-ies in the inexhaustible sea of the Soviet special vehicles appeared brand new class unusual and practically unknown airfield of machines for service at major airports of the country air passengers and the new turbojet aircraft. These included a unique and sophisticated means of transport from the self-propelled stairs, Luggage loaders, lifts and autolifts to cleaners of toilets and all kinds of tankers. Many of them no longer exist.

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One of the most common boot loaders Soviet airfields

Tagelou airfield vehicles we will leave for another article, but for now imagine how many years ago this spacious bus took us to the plane. Lifting it was hard to imagine that beneath your feet the car. More precisely, the electric car special design. In ancient times it was common in the USSR, self-propelled passenger stairs SPT-104 and SPT-114 for maintenance of Airliners of the Tu-104 and Tu-114 with the landing area at a height of 4.1 and 5.4 meters respectively. They were equipped with electrically powered rear wheels and all units from the accumulators and four retractable supports to ensure the sustainability of the whole Assembly. The driver was placed under the ladder and ran regular steering wheel.

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The most famous self-propelled passenger gangway SPT-104. 1965
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Easy gangway SPT-104 electric rear wheels and stairs with handrails

Such electrotherapy differed quiet, easy to use, nice streamlined shape. Short runs, low speed (7.5 km/h), smooth surface and the proximity of electrical outlets allowed to use them in many Soviet airports and in neighbouring countries.

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One of the world’s largest ladder SPT-114 serves turbojet Tu-114. 1961

Several other types of self-propelled ladders were mounted on production cars. Of these, the most widely used high-speed sliding SPT-20A and SPT-21 on the short wheelbase versions of chassis UAZ-451Д and UAZ-452Д respectively.

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Self-propelled autocrap SPT-21 in the transport position with folded ladder
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Four-wheel drive ladder SPT-21 on the basis of UAZ-452Д tent with separated staircase

They are usually served in small airports, where they could move out smooth coating and to serve aircraft with a level entry door up to four meters. The ladder is supplied with two tents with 13 lighting shades. To ensure that it is accurate summing up to the plane in the roof of the cab there was a viewing window. The mass of avtorov was 2.6 tons. Maximum movement speed: 40 km/h.

So we climbed into the plane and sitting comfortably at the window. Through it can be seen as a long line of baggage carts carry our bags. But how to raise this a considerable load on multimeter height in the cargo compartment of the aircraft? Then came to the aid of the Luggage autotransporter at-2 and at-4M on the chassis of GAZ-69 with double open or closed cabins and length of the arrows in eight or ten meters.

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Simplified one-section conveyor, the at-2 on the chassis of GAZ-69 with an open cockpit

On model at-4M the Executive body consisted of three separate pipelines with the hydraulic transfer case from the vehicle — stationary average and the two extreme flip. They provided a conveyor drive drums, the folding of the extreme sections, raising and lowering the middle part and work the outriggers.

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Automotive

Volvo has launched initiatives for security

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Konstantin Bolotov, 3 days ago. Photo: Volvo

Volvo wants to start a discussion about whether the automaker by applying constraints to change the behavior of drivers. As mark is ready to take “active responsibility” for the security, she believes such intervention is their right or even duty.

The Swedish brand is celebrating the 60th anniversary of three-point seat belt — “probably the most important invention in the history of automotive safety.” This device, which became the industry standard, saved, estimated to Volvo, more than a million lives. What’s next? The company has already decided in 2020 to limit the maximum speed of their cars at around 180 km/h Now put forward three initiatives: the E. V. A. project (Equal for all vehicles), key Care Key and the camera that monitors the driver’s behaviour. It’s all part of the strategy Vision 2020, under which the dead and seriously injured in a new Volvo car should not be.

Project E. V. A. aims to provide the same level of safety in the car for everyone, but the emphasis is on the protection of women. After all, they are, according to Volvo, are at greater risk of an accident due to anatomical features. For example, the cervical spine in men stronger.

Initiative E. V. A., the company are willing to share their research in the security sphere, ongoing since the 1950s. More than a hundred articles based on a thorough analysis of tens of thousands of real-world accidents. In particular, the digital library offers access to content on protection against whiplash and injuries of the lumbar spine.

Key Care Key will go “in the” all Volvo cars from 2021. It allows owners to set speed limit for yourself, family members and friends who use one machine. The idea is that Care Key is particularly useful for teenagers, just got a license.

In early 2020-ies Volvo promises to provide the next generation platform SPA, which is called the SPA2. In the basic equipment of all models, built on a “truck”, will include a system of cameras and other sensors that continuously monitors the state of the driver. The main task — the fight against drunk driving (cause 30% of accidents) and distraction.

The prototype two cameras mounted at the upper corners of the windshield, but the exact number of “eyes” and their location in the cabin will be released at a later date.

If the “obviously drunk” or distracted the driver does not react to the warning signals a long time looking at the road, sitting with eyes closed, acting too slowly or, on the contrary, extremely rebuilt — the car gets a right to intervene. It limits the speed alerts support through the service Volvo on Call, and in an extreme case, brakes to a full stop and finds a safe Parking. Except that the police is not, though…

However, along with the carrot there is the carrot in the form of “financial benefits”: good driver not only avoid trouble, but will be much less to pay for insurance. Soon Volvo will announce the first of several agreements with the insurance companies in Sweden. Specific terms of the transaction will depend on conditions in a particular market.

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Automotive

Simple solution: as every year to go to the new crossover Nissan

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Most new car buyers still operating in the traditional way, buying a car on credit and paying it in three years, sell a car, to make a new one. However, there are those who have already tasted the benefits of leasing programs, thanks to which owning a car is not burdened with either service or insurance or taxes or other related costs, and the car can be replaced with new at least every year. It is a program jointly developed Major and Nissan. How it works, and what is the benefit?

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Te who are familiar with the leasing scheme, it is easy to guess in the “Simple solution” is one of such proposals. A distinctive feature of the service from Major – regular updates to vehicle: the contract for the rental of the car is signed for one year, after which the customer can either buy a car on favorable terms, or that is more logical for the leasing scheme, to exchange it for a new one.

What is the benefit?

To understand the benefits of the proposal, it is sufficient to compare it with the standard purchase of a car on credit. As an example, take the “average” variant: Nissan Qashqai for 1.6 million rubles. The first condition for the acquisition of the loan is the initial fee in the amount of 450 thousand rubles. Of course, the loan is accompanied by a mandatory insurance of the collateral: for CTP and hull will have to pay 50 thousand and 30 thousand will cost life insurance that is also required by most banks. Things like floor mats and a set of the motorist at the time of purchase against the General background seem unnoticed, however, and they are 5-6 thousand to spend.

Nissan Terrano '2016–н.в.

Nissan Terrano ‘2016–present

So, paying a lump sum of about 540 thousand, the buyer leaves the showroom. Considering the average annual mileage in the first year of owning the car he will need to pass one to buy a set of winter tires and twice to set. Taking into account the cost THAT 1 in 12 thousand and a decent winter tire as well as tire service and seasonal storage of tires routine maintenance will take another 60. Throw in 5 thousand roubles of the transport tax for the 144-strong car – and get almost the full cost of owning a car, not including optional “special stages” such as replacing the music, seat covers and other.

Well, the third item of expenditure when buying a car on credit is actually a loan. In our conditions, subject to a monthly payment of 37 thousand for the first year will have to pay 444 thousand rubles. Adding to this the amount of the initial contribution and the cost of insurance and owning a car in the first year, we get about 1.1 million – and ahead of a few years of the loan, maintenance of compulsory insurance and so on.

Nissan X-Trail (T32) '2017–н.в.

Nissan X-Trail (T32) in 2017–present

Against this background, the program “Simple solution” fully justifies its name. The fact is that, choosing a car, simply arrive at the dealership with a package of documents, to make an advance payment equal to one monthly – and go on a new car. Do not need to insure himself or the car at your expense, no need to pay for registration, no need to pay extra for floor mats and even THEN: everything is included in the monthly payment. Given that the leasing scheme the actual owner is the lessor in the face of a major Pro, vehicle tax, insurance and registration pays for it. Thus, to go from the salon on the new Nissan Qashqai, in this case you will need to 33.5 thousand rubles – and no unaccounted for additional costs.

The second advantage of leasing – no need to pay for the service and maintenance of the car: all of this is also taken into account in the monthly payment. Getting to use the machine on the program “Simple solution”, the client receives a “complete” winter tires, free tire and seasonal storage of wheels, and-1. Simply put, we can only fill the car and drive it – all the rest is already taken care of in advance.

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