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Adobe’s New AI Tool Can Identify Photoshopped Faces

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The Internet cannot be trusted: Between doctored photos and deepfaked videos, there’s just no telling what is fact and fiction.

In an effort to regulate the digital Wild West it helped usher in 30 years ago, Photoshop maker Adobe developed a new tool for identifying altered images.

Researchers Richard Zhang and Oliver Wang—along with UC Berkeley collaborators Sheng-Yu Wang, Andrew Owens, and Alexei Efros—created a method for detecting edits made using Photoshop’s Face Aware Liquify filter.

The function automatically distinguishes facial features, making it easy to adjust eye size, nose height, smile width, and face shape.

Popular with photographers who didn’t quite capture the expression they wanted, the feature’s delicate effects “made it an intriguing test case for detecting both drastic and subtle alterations to faces,” an Adobe blog post said.

“While we are proud of the impact that Photoshop and Adobe’s other creative tools have made on the world, we also recognize the ethical implications of our technology,” the company wrote.

“Trust in what we see is increasingly important in a world where image editing has become ubiquitous,” it continued. “Fake content is a serious and increasingly pressing issue.”

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With that in mind, Adobe partnered with the University of California, Berkeley, as part of a broader effort to better expose image, video, audio, and document manipulations.

Using pictures scraped from the Internet—as well as some modified by a human artist—the team trained a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) to recognize altered images of faces.

“We started by showing image pairs (an original and an alteration) to people who knew that one of the faces was altered,” Oliver Wang said in a statement. “For this approach to be useful, it should be able to perform significantly better than the human eye at identifying edited faces.”

Spoiler alert: It does.

Flesh-and-blood people were able to ID the revised face 53 percent of the time (slightly better than chance), the neural network achieved results as high as 99 percent.

The tool also pinpointed specific areas and methods of facial warping, and was able to revert images to what it estimated was their original state. The results, according to Adobe, impressed “even the researchers.”

Adobe’s new tool was nearly twice as good at identifying manipulated images as humans (via Adobe/UC Berkeley)

“It might sound impossible because there are so many variations of facial geometry possible,” UC Berkeley professor Efros said. ‘But, in this case, because deep learning can look at a combination of low-level image data, such as warping artifacts, as well as higher level cues such as layout, it seems to work.”

This isn’t the end of fake news just yet, though.

“The idea of a magic universal ‘undo’ button to revert image edits is still far from reality,” Zhang admitted, bursting our collective bubble. “But we live in a world where it’s becoming harder to trust the digital information we consume, and I look forward to further exploring this area of research.”

“This is an important step in being able to detect certain types of image editing, and the undo capability works surprisingly well,” Gavin Miller, head of Adobe Research, added.

“Beyond technologies like this,” he said, “the best defense will be a sophisticated public who know that content can be manipulated—often to delight them, but sometimes to mislead them.”

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LGBTQ+ Video Creators Sue YouTube, Google

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A group of LGBTQ+ video creators are suing YouTube and parent company Google for discrimination.

Eight plaintiffs are alleging their content was suppressed, their ability to advertise was restricted, and their subscribers were culled, according to The Washington Post.

The suit, filed this week in the Northern California District Court, also asserts that YouTube enforces it policies unevenly, giving a pass to channels with large audiences—even if their content is prejudiced.

“Our LGBTQ+ content is being demonetized, restricted, and not sent out to viewers, which has highly affected our ability to reach the community that we strongly want to help,” singing duo and lesbian couple Bria Kam and Chrissy Chambers said in a video explaining why they’re suing Google/YouTube.

“YouTube is supposed to be a safe space for us. I don’t feel safe at all,” transgender cat lover Chase Ross added.

“Things need to change. The algorithm needs to change. We need to stand together, because we’re more powerful in numbers,” he said. “And honestly, standing here, watching our videos get demonetized, it’s disheartening; it hurts. And it needs to end right now.”

The class action lawsuit maintains that YouTube’s software algorithms, as well as its human reviewers, single out and remove content featuring words like “gay,” “lesbian,” or “bisexual.”

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As a result, those video creators are losing followers and advertising revenue.

Kam and Chambers, whose BriaAndChrissy channel boasts more than 850,000 subscribers, claim that YouTube’s enforcement reduced their monthly earnings from $3,500 to about $500.

Brett Somers’ channel Watts the Safeword—”kink-friendly” sex education—lost more than $6,000 in average monthly sales as a result of restrictions, he said.

YouTube, meanwhile, denies the allegations (two years after it was caught censoring LGBTQ+ users).

“Our policies have no notion of sexual orientation or gender identity and our systems do not restrict or demonetize videos based on these factors or the inclusion of terms like ‘gay’ or ‘transgender,’” company spokesman Alex Joseph said in a statement published by FFWD.

“In addition,” he continued, “we have strong policies prohibiting hate speech, and we quickly remove content that violates our policies and terminate accounts that do so repeatedly.”

The Google-owned video streaming site—the world’s largest, with nearly 2 billion monthly views—wields enormous power over creators. It can promote or bury content as it sees fit, and there’s very little anyone can do about it.

“By controlling an estimated 95 percent of the public video communications that occur in the world, Google and YouTube wield unparalleled power and unfettered discretion to apply viewpoint-based content policies in a way that permits them to pick winners and losers,” Peter Obstler, lead attorney for the plaintiffs, told WaPo.

“We are not going to stand by and let our community get dismissed, belittled, or discriminated against,” Somers said in the video, encouraging supporters to spread the word and stand up against YouTube.

Neither Google nor YouTube immediately responded to Geek’s request for comment.

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Robot Dog Astro Can Sit, Lie Down, and Save Lives

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Who’s a good boy? Astro, the four-legged seeing and hearing intelligent robodog.

Using deep learning and artificial intelligence, scientists from Florida Atlantic University’s Machine Perception and Cognitive Robotics (MPCR) Laboratory are bringing Astro to life.

A robotic tail wagger is not exactly new: Boston Dynamics has been honing its all-electric Spot lineup for years.

But Astro has a head start—literally.

FAU’s quadruped features a 3D-printed noggin (designed to resemble a Doberman pinscher) that contains a computerized brain.

He doesn’t just look like a dog, though. He learns like one, too: Astro is being trained via deep neural network to learn from experience and perform real-life tasks.

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Built-in sensors, radar imaging, cameras, and a directional microphone help ensure that, just like a flesh-and-blood pooch, he can respond to commands like “sit,” “stand,” and “lie down.”

Eventually, researchers hope Astro will be able to understand hand signals, detect different colors, comprehend various languages, coordinate with drones, distinguish human faces, and recognize other dogs.

“Astro is inspired by the human brain and he has come to life through machine learning and artificial intelligence, which is proving to be an invaluable resource in helping to solve some of the world’s most complex problems,” Ata Sarajedini, dean of FAU’s Charles E. Schmidt College of Science, said in a statement.

Designed to engage and react to his surroundings in real time, the intelligent machine will be able to navigate rough terrains and respond to dangerous situations.

As an information scout, Astro can assist police, the military, and security personnel in sniffing out guns and explosives. He is also capable of rapidly searching faces in a database, smelling the air for foreign substances, and hearing distress calls well outside a human’s audible range.

As if that weren’t impressive enough, the heartwarming hound may be programmed to work as a service dog for the visually impaired or provide medical diagnostic monitoring.

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Easily Assign Tasks With Google Assistant

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With less than four weeks left until our wedding, my fiance and I are in full productivity mode.

Planning the seating chart. Issuing responsibilities. Finalizing table decor. Trying to ensure nothing slips through the cracks while also enjoying the everyday activities of Edinburgh’s many August festivals.

We could certainly use an extra set of hands—or a digital helper.

Google Assistant now features assignable reminders to help families and housemates collaborate and stay organized at home or on the go.

“This means you can now create reminders for your partner or roommate to do things like pick up the groceries, pay a recurring bill, walk the dog,” Glenn Wilson, group product manager for Google Assistant, wrote in a blog post.

Or get the programs and table-name placards printed.

To assign a reminder, simply tell your Assistant, “Hey Google, remind Greg to take out the trash at 8 p.m.”

Greg will receive one notification on his Assistant-enabled smart display, speaker, and/or phone when the reminder is created, and a second at its set time.

Your absent-minded mate can even access all of his cues with a quick, “Hey Google, what are the reminders for Greg?”

The feature is rolling out to phones, speakers, and smart displays (via Google)

The feature also works for location-based prompts with a specific address or landmark.

Say you want to nudge Claire to pick up flowers but don’t know when she’ll be shopping. Just say, “Hey Google, remind Claire to pick up flowers when she gets to the San Francisco Ferry Building.”

Using her phone’s GPS, Assistant will alert Claire when it recognizes that she’s arrived at the Ferry Building.

Users can send and receive reminders only from people in their Google family group, or those whose accounts are linked to the same smart display or speaker and are voice matched.

The recipient must also be in a sender’s Google contacts.

“In addition, you have the control to block anyone from sending you reminders at any time through the new Assignable reminders section in Assistant Settings,” Wilson explained.

The feature is rolling out in English over the coming weeks to phones, speakers, and smart displays in the US, UK, and Australia. It will also work with Google Nest Hub Max upon release later this fall.

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